Lauren Bruder- 2-406L



Aim: How did Louis XIV (AKA “The Sun King”) Rule France? (1643-1715)

Theme: Power/Government


  1. Royalty is sacred and absolute (divine right, absolute monarchy)
  2. The King is G-d’s messenger- G-d put him on the throne
  3. Subjects must obey the king- to go against him is to go against religion


Why did kings rise to power?

  1. The Crusades- church lost power; nobles dieàking’s power rise
  2. Business class (townspeople) wanted strong central power, which keeps order and protects property and business, supports colonies (mercantilism) which increases trade, uniform currency, etc.
  3. Reformation- led to church’s decline
  4. Nationalism- king is the symbol of unity


Absolute Monarchy- rules by divine right and decides what is best for the state

Ruler has unlimited power; individuals are like objects owing loyalty and obedience.  Ruler encourages industry and trade to strengthen the economy.  Ruler dominates cultural life either as patron of the arts or by censorship.


-         Ruler holds unlimited poweràpolitical

-         Ruler dominated upper classes, which in turn dominate lower classes.  Ceremonies symbolize ruler’s poweràsocial

-         Ruler encouraged industry and trade to strengthen the economyàeconomic

-         Ruler dominated cultural life either by a patron of the arts or by censorshipàcultural.


Louis XIV:


-         Appointed royal officials/ “intendants”(usually from middle class) to gain their loyalty- collect taxes, recruit soldiers, etc.

-         Absolute power

-          Didn’t call the Estate’s General (parliament) into session



-         Finance minister- Jean Baptiste Colbert who had mercantilist policies

-         High tariffs on imports

-         Oversaw colonies (New France)

-         Overseas colonies (New France)


-Palace of Versailles- symbol of wealth and power



-         Palace: ceremonies and rituals

-         Required nobles to live at Versailles to keep a close eye on them

-         He let them compete for his favor so they would fight each other, not him. Ceremonies and rituals(people following him and doing shallow chores for him- watch him get dressed, etc.)

-         paid a high tax




                    The reign of King Louis and the conditions of the time


1.      The government debt had tripled from 1774-1779 (half of it coming from France’s participation in the American Revolution)

2.      Banks were refusing to lend the government money even at 40% interest

3.      By the spring of 1789, the price of bread had almost doubled from 1789 due to the bad drought of 1788 and the cold winter which stopped grain from being shipped.  Bread was the main part of the diet of the French and the worker was used to paying about half of his earnings for bread; now almost every cent he earned went to his bread

4.      Louis XIV called the Estates-General into session for the first time in over 150 years in order to raise money through taxes and hopefully to quiet the demands of the people who were starting to riot in the streets of Paris.  Anticipating a discussion of the nation’s problems, each estate wrote its own cahier (letters of complaint to discuss conditions they wished changed) to the king. 







Aim: How did Peter “The Great”, 1692-1725 Rule Russia?

  Peter The Great 1692-1725


  1. Followed the absolutist idea of Louis XIV of France= Czar had complete control of highly centralized administration, nobles were only his agents
  2. Orthodox church fell under Peter’s control- in France, monarchy controlled local governments



  1. Made a new service nobility- rank and privilege were dependent of the amount of government service performed, rather than family status.
  2. Peter granted nobles large estates with thousands of serfs(formerly, free peasants).




  1. These changes caused by nobility increased the number of serfs, and worsened their condition
  2. At a time when serfdom was declining rapidly throughout Europe, Czar bound serfs to their lords as well as their lands; their owners could buy and sell them like slavesàuprisingsàgovernment crushed all rebellions.


Foreign Policy:

  1. In 1697, Peter, who often disguised himself as a private citizen, went with a Russian delegation to several countries in Western Europe to negotiate an alliance against the Turksàfailedàbut Peter learned all about the West(met leaders of learning and scientists, etc.)



  1. Czar Peter reorganized his army along French lines, and equipped it with the best European weaponsàtested this army in a long war (1700-1712) with Sweden= Russia won, and got territory with access to the Black Sea.
  2. Ended Sweden’s short lived role as a great power in Europe.



  1. Armies and navies cost money= taxed almost everything, even babies and long beards
  2. Encouraged the development of foreign trade and manufacturing
  3. Required Russian land owners to grow potatoes
  4. Favored mercantilist policies
  5. Built and subsided factories (from 13-2000)
  6. Encouraged iron industry (iron ore and large forests)



  1. Had to give up their long robes suitable for Russia’s bitter winters in order to wear European style short coats



  1. Had to shave off their long beards



a. Abandon their isolation and take part in community life


(See sheets)

Additional information:

  1. Assumed control of the church (Eastern Orthodox)
  2. His family, the Romanovs, ruled for a number of generations.  Nicolas Romanov (father of Anna- Anastasia) was the last czar of Russia, in 1917. Many of the royal families throughout Europe were interrelated- the Romanovs were related to  a royal family in England.


Homework #1


Factors Contributing to Russia’s Isolation (1500’s)


    1. Asian influence resulting from Mongol domination
    2. Western civilization had reached Russia from Constantinople and the Byzantine empire, not from the west
    3. Russia’s religion was Eastern Orthodox, rather than Roman Catholic or Protestant
    4. Russia used the Cyrillic alphabet, which posed as a barrier to communicate with the rest of Europe (that used the Roman alphabet)



    1. Strong kingdoms of Sweden and Poland blocked Russia from the Baltic Sea
    2. South- Ottoman Turks held the Black Sea coast
    3. West- plains of Poland and Eastern Europe blocked commercial contact
    4. Russia’s rivers didn’t flow into the great oceans and seas(a lot was taking place commercially)
    5. Completely landlocked
    6. Frozen up North



Peter The Great:




Aim: How did a clash between stuart kings and parliament result in a revolution?

Theme: Power/Revolution



  1. Religion
  2. Finance/taxes


Henry VII= established a new official church of England, the Angelican Church


Mary I(daughter of Henry VII)= had determination to make England Catholic.   All who wouldn’t conform to the Catholic Church got burned at the stake (around 300 people)including Thomas Carpenter, archbishop Canterbury= “Bloody Mary”; End resultèfailed to destroy Protestantism


Elizabeth I(Mary’s half-sister)= Used parliamentary acts to make England Protestant (ex- those who didn’t attend the Angelican church had to pay a fine). The monarchy benefited from the break with the Catholic Church, due to the fact that it took over church lands and consolidated its powers.

-         She managed the parliament wellàsummoned ten parliaments during her reign, and they met for a total of 140 weeks

-         Obtained all the taxes needed without letting members of the parliament influence her policy

-         Found it hard to prevent its members, especially Puritans, from questioning government policies


  Mary Queen of Scots (Elizabeth’s closest relative and heir)= She was Catholic, thus horrifying English Protestants that she would be queen.  She delayed plans for Phillip II of Spain to invade England and force a Catholic ruler on the English people.

-         1568àto escape problems in Scotland, Mary fled to Englandàimprisoned by ElizabethàMary plotted with Phillip II’s ambassador to kill Elizabeth and seize the English throne.  Elizabeth signed Mary’s death warrant, and in 1587 Mary was beheadedàMary now deadàPhillip II had no reason to delay his plans to invade England.


Phillip II= Spanish king.  In 1588, he sent fleets of 130 ships- “invincible armada” north towards the English ChannelàEngland got its ships to stop the armadaà “Protestant wind” began to blow, only about 50 ships returned to Spain.


James I= Kept powerful church of Scotland under control

-         People gave him a letter from parliament, saying how it should be run, but he believed in divine right of kings, so refused.

-         Couldn’t collect enough taxes to finance his policies= taxes passed by parliament were insufficient- sold titles of nobility, granted monopoly rights to private companies, and increased customs duties

-         Was liked by Puritans- ordered English Bible to be published


Charles I= Took his job as head of the Anglican Church very seriously

-         Favored formal and ritualistic Protestantism, which annoyed the Puritans (limited sermons to those that concerned the ten commandments and required government approval for the printing of religious booksàsome Puritans left to go to America for more religious freedom

-         Couldn’t persuade parliament to give him moneyàforced people to give him money, and imprisoned those who didn’t- led to bad confrontation with parliament in 1629

-         That led to members giving him a document called the “Petition of Right”= signed it, promising not to levy taxes without the consent of Parliament, imprison without charge, etc.àbut continued to levy taxesàmembers of the House of Commons protested, so he dissolved parliament.


Catherine (Catholic) with Henry VIIIè Mary Tudor “Bloody Mary”

Henry VIII with Anne (Protestant) èElizabeth


Elizabeth relatives with James I and Charles I- the Stuarts

These two kings were very unpopular-they were foreigners, claimed divine power, were friendly with Catholic Spain (most of England was protestant) and discriminated against Puritans.  The middle class was mad about the taxes- the lawyers were mad that the kings would violate English law by imprisoning the people without trial. Parliament was mad that the kings would raise money without their consent, when they had Power of the Purse.


There is a lot of resentment by the middle class and Puritans


Charles does not call parliament into session for 11 years. Finally he is fighting the Scots (attempting to suppress their rebellion) and is desperate for money.  He assembles parliament, who refuse to give him the money, and when he attempted to arrest its leaders, a civil war broke out.


Unpopular Stuart Kings- James I and Charles I

  1. Claimed divine rights
  2. Followed an unpopular foreign policy of friendship toward Catholic Spain
  3. Discriminated against the Puritans
  4. Harmed the Anglican Church by taxing it heavily while neglecting trade
  5. Violated English law by imprisoning opponents without a fair trial
  6. Raised money by means not approved by parliamentàresentmentàparliament (middle class and puritans) attempted to reassert their authority

Charles heavily taxed them, and wanted Puritans to conform to the Anglican Church; attempts to arrest leaders of the House of Commonsàcivil war erupts in Europe.


Parliament and the Puritans form one side, called the Roundheads.  The other side, composed of the royal forces, was called the Cavaliers (from the word Cavalry)


The Roundheads, led by Oliver Cromwell, defeat the Cavaliers and put Charles I on trial for treason, tyranny, and murder.  Charles was then found guilty and beheaded.  This sets a major precedent for the rest of Europe, because it’s a major blow to the concept of divine right.


Cromwell rules England as a military dictator.  This confuses the English people- did they get rid of one dictator just to be led by another? People were also unhappy because he favored a Puritan way of life, which was extremely strict.


When Cromwell died, the English people restored the monarchy through Charles II (who had been exiled after his father’s death).  Learning from his fathers death, Charles II promised to observe the magna carta and the Petition of Right.



Why did this fail to gain widespread support?

    1. Dictatorial government and heavy taxes
    2. The role of Cromwell and Puritan followers, in the execution of Charles I
    3. Puritan intolerance of the Anglican Church
    4. The severe Puritan Code (prohibited dancing etc.)


 Who were the Tories?

They were a group in Parliament:

  1. Original ones had been Irish Catholic Guerillas
  2. Wanted strong hereditary monarch, but not an absolute one
  3. Strongly supported Anglican Church, but would willingly accept a Roman Catholic Ruleràif heir were protestant.


Who were the Whigs?

The second of the two groups= Presbyterian guerillas

  1. Favored a weak government and strong parliament
  2. Opposed the idea of a Roman Catholic Ruler


What was the Cabinet?

  A group of people who were leaders in Parliament; made policies


What was a Prime Minister?

  First Prime Minister, also carried the “first lord of the Treasury”.


What is Limited Constitutional monarchy?

  A leader sits on a throne, limited and constitutional- constitution limited the monarch’s power, and the monarch had to consult parliament.



Aim: how did Parliament gain power over the monarchs in England?

Theme: Power/Turning Point


Charles II- approves Habeas Corpus; also pledges to observe the magna carta and the petition of right; pledges to respect the authority of parliament

Why did he agree to all that?

He knew what happened to his father, that got beheaded by the people


  Charles was James’s brotheràJames was then king

-         Born Protestantàconverted to Catholicism

-         His wife dies and then he went and married a Catholic girl

-         Then has a son who’s catholic

-         People now worried about return to Catholicism

-         Believed in divine right


James II- divine right, pro-Catholic (2 wives- one protestant, that dies, and one catholic- he converts to Catholicism).


Parliament secretly offers the English crown to William and Mary (daughter of James II) who are both protestant.  James II flees England without a fight- called the Glorious Revolution, in 1688.  This was a major turning point because their powers are not given to them by G-d, but by parliament (another major turning point was when Charles was beheaded).  Now parliament have control of the monarchy and forces William and Mary to sign the Bill of Rights.


When George I rules, he didn’t know English or English traditions, so he needed advisors- called “Cabinet”, the head being the Prime Minister, who pretty much runs the country today.


Homework #3


  1. Parliament is a gathering or a body of representatives of a country (in this case, England) which meets and discusses approving taxes, passing laws, etc. much like the Congress of the United States.
  2. The two houses in Parliament is House of Lords and House of Commons. House of Commons represented the gentry, or land-owners with social status, and burgesses, or merchants and professional people.






Henry VIII


Established a new official church in England, the Anglican Church.


Mary I


Pro-Catholic, burned those who opposed Catholic laws. Tried to eliminate all Protestants.


Elizabeth I


Fully Protestant, imposed a fine on those who didn’t attend Anglican church. Persecuted Catholics and Puritans, establishing an enemy within the Puritans.


Mary Queen of Scots

Was Catholic, and even though the English Protestants didn’t like it, it prevented Philip II from invading England.


Philip II


Catholic, leader of the Counter-Reformation

James I


Left Puritans alone, ordered new translation of Bible into English.


Charles I


Took Protestantism seriously, increased restrictions on the Puritans







Elizabeth I


Elizabeth ignored Parliament’s urges for her to marry, and when members of Parliament questioned the government too much, they began a revolution.


James I


When he sold nobility titles, passed taxes and granted monopolies to private companies, Parliament had objected. They also objected when he attempted to make peace with Spain.


Charles I


Signed the Petition of Right which ordered him not to levy taxes, declare martial law, quarter soldiers in private homes at peacetime, and not to imprison people for no reason.




4. The financial issues between the Stuart kings and Parliament served as the breaking point because despite all the pleas and attempts and petitions of Parliament, the kings still had to obtain money and did anything they could to receive it.


To Sum it all up……

  1. Magna Carta- 1215- English nobles forced King John to accept the Magna Carta (“Great Charter”).  This document protected the liberty of nobles, and had some provisions that dealt with ordinary people.  Therefore, King John promised:
    1. No new taxes without the consent of the Great Council
    2. Don’t take property without paying
    3. Not to refuse, sell, or delay justice
    4. King must abide by the law
  2. Petition of Right- signed by Charles I- this petition promised that he would:
    1. Not impose taxes without parliament
    2. Not to declare martial law to a quarter in private homes at peacetime
    3. Couldn’t imprison people without charge
  3. Habeas Corpus Act- 1679- This act said that anyone who was arrested could get a writ (order)  demanding to be brought before a judge within a special period of time- the judge would reach a verdict
Habeas Corpus- “You shall have the body”
  1. English Bill of Rights-  1689- The bill insured many things to protect the people and parliament:
    1. Parliament would chose a ruler who would be an official subject to Parliament laws
    2. Cant proclaim/suspend any law, impose taxes, or maintain an army in peacetime without parliament consent
    3. Any member of parliament had the right to petition the government for relief of any injustice
    4. Any member of parliament can express themselves freely


Aim: How did Enlightenment Thinkers answer the basic question of the 18th century? (how does one make mankind happy, rational, and free?)

Theme: Turning Point


-“Whenever Law ends, Tyranny begins”- Locke- With no laws, there is anarchy

-         “Liberty is obedience to the law which one has laid down for oneself”- Rousseau – it is considered freedom because YOU make the law


All these questions about laws, etc. began with the Scientific Revolution, when they used logic, reason, and experimentation to solve problems of the physical- they discovered that everything has a cause and effect.

Descartes- “I think, therefore I am”

Beforehand, scientists relied on theology- religion and ancient texts.  Their methods of solving problems, using reason, to solve physical problems were then applied to the study of humans, and human nature- this was the Enlightenment Period.  They wanted to discover natural laws (laws between you and I), laws that govern human nature (society and human behavior).

Hobbes Vs. Locke- Hobbes lived during the English Civil War, and so he had a pessimistic opinion (since the king was beheaded), and Locke lived during the Glorious Revolution, so he had an optimistic view.


  1. Hobbes- “Leviathon” (1651)

People are driven by selfishness and greed


In a “State of Nature”- without laws- chaos/anarchy/ “war”


To avoid this, people give up their freedom (social contract) to a government that provides order


Such a government must be strong to control the nation= absolute monarchy


  1. Locke- “Two Treatsies On Civil Government” (1690)

Everybody is born with natural rights- life, liberty, and property


Purpose of government- protect property and these natural rights


If the government doesn’t fulfill its purpose or if it transgresses the people’s rights, they can revolt, they can change the government

Felt that people only gave up some individual rights, and kept others.

Also believe that people first lived in a state of anarchy, then made a social contract.

* Turning Point- this idea is used by the U.S and later, France


  1. Montesquieu- “The Spirit of the Laws” (1748)

If one person makes, enforces, and judges the laws, there is no freedom and this is an abuse of power.

Says that the powers of government should be separated into judicial, executive, and legislative branches.

Why?  To prevent any one group or person from gaining too much power.  Each branch should check and balance each other.

Presidentßà Supreme court


Congressßà Supreme Court

Legislative- made the laws

Executive- administered the laws

Judicial- interpreted and applied the laws


  1. Voltaire: “Letters on England” (1734)
    1. Managed to reverse some legal decisions by rallying public opinions and raising people to oppose barbaric torture and religious intolerance
    2. “I do not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.”


  1. Rousseau: “The Royal Contract” (1762)
    1. People are born good, but their environment, laws and education corrupt them
    2. The free and good state in which people are born can be preserved only if they live under a government that they can choose and can control (“Popular Sovereignty”)
    3. Distrusted reason, and that it brought on misery and corruption, not progress.


Aim: How did the Enlightenment Spread?

Theme: Cultural Diffusion


“An opinion launched in Paris (France was the center of the Enlightenment) was like a battering ram launched by 30 million people.”

Ex: Ben Franklin visited Europe- brought enlightenment ideas back to America


  1. Encyclopedia- dictionary of reason, science, and occupations.

Denis Diderot- 28 volumes- 20,000 copies (1751-1789)- the editor

Purpose: to begin a revolution in the minds of men- wanted to change the wat people think or do things

Explained new ideas: Government, philosophy, religion, science, technology,- includes articles by leading professors (Voltaire, etc.) Denounced slavery, praised freedom of speech, urged education for all, attacks divine right theory and traditional religion- led to the democratization in France. 

Arranged alphabetically- Roi (king) and Dieu (god) comes in alphabetical order, they are not the first things in the books- are not placed first!  There was free access to knowledge and bypassed traditional authority.

  1. Salons- informal gathering where people would gather and exchange ideas- artists, philosophers, and others would gather.


Thomas Paine- “Common Sense”-this pamphlet represents Enlightenment thinking- says that it goes against reason that King George, who is so far away from the colonies, should rule them.  This sparked the American Revolution.

We see a lot of Enlightenment ideas in the Declaration of Independence as well- we see concepts of all men are created equal, popular sovereignty, unalienable rights, right to rebel, etc.


Mercantilism- helped mother country, but greatly harmed colonies


Enlightened Deposits- people who tried to use Enlightenment thinking to help reform the country (they were absolute monarchs) King Frederick of Prussia- he says that he wants to fight ignorance and prejudice, to cultivate his peoples manners and morals, and to make them as happy as himself.  He had Voltaire live in his court for a short while as an advisor.  Although he spoke a lot about helping the state, he did more to increase his own power.


Catherine the Great- Gave a lot of “lip service”- said she wanted to free the serfs, etc. She conquered the Turks and finally got the warm water ports on the Black Sea that Peter had wanted- it was this, her military service, that she was known for.


Peasants are untouched by enlightenment- still lived in small, rural villages.


Still serfs

Could be sold with land

‘Owed labor with land

Some were forced to serve as sailors




No longer serfs

Rented or owned land

Hired as day laborers

By late 1700’s, some sought reform and justice


Rousseau believed that education of women is key.  A woman named Mary Wollstonecraft was the first real feminist. 





Aim: Why did a Revolution Erupt in France in 1789?

The Revolution/Turning Point

“Road to Revolution”


Some Background….


First Estate

Type of people= Clergy of the Roman Catholic Church

Percent of the Population= made up less than 1%

“Special Privileges”= (held since the middle ages)- only church courts could try priests and bishops

-         Clergy didn’t have to pay taxes, but made a “free gift” of money to the French king

-         Church owned about 1/10 of all French land, and therefore got a lot of money from taxes, rents, and fees.

-         Higher clergy (archbishops and bishops) had a lot of money- therefore became lazy and neglected many spiritual duties

Poor Treatment and abuse= lower clergy (parish priest) did most of the work and got very little pay

Gave religious guidance and fed the poor, while providing education



Second Estate

Type of People= nobility

Percent of the population= less than 2% of the population

“Special Privileges”- (originated in the feudal time)

-         The right to wear a sword

-         Right to function as ‘Lord of the Manor’

-         Exempt from most taxes

-         Could collect rent from the poor peasants that worked their lands

-         Many of the wealthiest bought their titles from past kings

-         Some of the idealists among the nobility did understand the complaints of the first estate

Poor treatment/abuse=

-         Nobles paid few taxes if any, and still collected feudal dues from the peasants

-         Nobles were the only ones that could hold the highest positions in the army and the government

-         Some cared about the welfare of France, but on the whole, the nobility were thoughtless and irresponsible


Third Estate

Type of People= The top: ‘Burgeoies’àcity-dwelling middle class- merchants, manufacturers, doctors, lawyers, etc.  Below them- artisans and laborers; Bottom- the peasants- led miserable lives of poverty

% of Population= about 97%

Burgeoise- wealthy and had education

Peasants- by 1700’s few of them remained serfs, but still owned feudal dues

-         Paid rent for the land on which they worked

-         Heaviest taxes

-         Tithe- 1/10 income to church

-         Many could not afford to farm the land

-         Many used farming equipment


 July 14th, 1789 (also Mr. Rothbort’s birthday)- “Bastille Day”- Revolution Begins (French Independence Day)

  1. Enlightenment Ideasà
  2. English Glorious Revolutionà
  3. Inequality (Class Pyramid)- 2% of the people (first and second estate) owned 30% of the land
  4. Abuses of the “Old Regime” by king and first and second estates
  5. Food riotsà 1788- poor harvestàfood (bread shortage)à rise in pricesàbakers go out of businessàriots


Deficit- the French owed 126,000,000 francs more than they collected- this is called deficit spending

Frenchmen would fight for the Americans, and Louis spent a lot of money on the colonies there, because he believed in the phrase “My enemy’s enemy is my friend”.- the English and the Americans are enemies, as are the English and French.

The banks refused to grant Louis XVI loans, and so he planned to tax the 1st and 2nd estates, but they refused.


1789- Louis calls the Estate’s General (who had not met for 175 years)- asked each estate to write their grievances in a notebook (a “cahier)




1. Wanted a say in government policy mainly because the government interfered with their business

2.      Wanted their sons to have important positions in the church, army and government= only nobles could

3.      Merchants and manufacturers didn’t want to pay taxes when nobles and clergy didn’t

               4.Wanted political power

5.      Freedom to trade with foreign countries without interference

6.      At first wanted mercantilism, but by the mid 1700’s , disliked mercantilist policies concerning government waging taxes, wages, and prices.

Nobles and Clergy

  1. Disliked increasing concentration of power in hands of the French king
  2. France became larger and kings more powerful
  3. Larger armies- lost influence and didn’t profit


  1. Found food prices rising higher and higher, lost wages not going up
Artisans and Peasants
  1. Blamed the king for letting prices get so high
  2. Resented the rich, that collected their rent, ate a lot, and lived in big houses
  3. Mad that they had to pay taxes and nobles and clergy didn’t have toà sometimes the poor rebelled- increased crime and robbery
Nobles treatment of peasants
  1. Nobles taxed land and raised rent
  2. Hired lawyers to find old feudal dues
  3. Tried to sell things they once gave away


Page 429 Q’s #5 and #6

5).a. The terms liberty and equality were interpreted by the peasants as the right to eat and get reward for their labor.

b. By the Bourgoise- the freedom to trade without restrictions, and the right to get into the highest positions on society by way of merit alone

Called this “equality of opportunity”

6). A. Louis XVI called a meeting of the estates general (1789 at Versailles), because he thought that by calling together all the representatives from all 3 estates (not just nobility) could get his approval for his idea for taxing the wealth


Famous speech made by a clergy- Abbe Sieyes

What is the third estate? EVERYTHING (majority of the population).  What is it asking for? TO BE SOMETHING.

He was sympathetic to the peasants.


The voting was by estate, not by the individuals.  In order to pass a law, two estates and the king must approve it.  This was the third estate’s major complaint- 300 members of the first estate, 300 members of the 2nd estate, 600 members of the third estate. But each estate only gets one vote.  The first and second estates would always vote as a bloc.  This system angered the Third estate, and there was no resolution to this problem.  They declared a national assemblyà National Assembly- they claimed that this represents the people.  Louis XVI locks the assembly out of their meeting place.  Instead, they meet outside, on a tennis court, and declared that they would not disband until a new constitution was established.  After they take this oath, a rumor began that the king was marching an army in Paris against them, and this sparked the storming of the Bastille- the king’s jail, where prisoners who had been arrested by letters of cache were kept)-on July 14th, 1789.  There were only 7 prisoners, but they heard arms were stored there.

-         This sends a warning to the nobility and king not to resist reform

-         Commoners express support for this new National Assembly

-         The Bastille was a symbol of the King’s power

This was an attack on the kings power.  Once the soldiers did not support the king, the tide turned.  This was a turning point.


Summer of 1789- the “Great Fear”- violence and bread riots continued, especially peasants vs. nobles

October of 1789- women march in Versaille demanding bread

“We have the baker, the bakers wife, and son”- they captured Louis, Marie, and their son and took them back to Paris

People didn’t like Mary Antoinette- Louis’s wife married for political reasons- people didn’t like her because she was concerned with luxury and wealth

By the women getting involved, we see it was a popular revolt.


-         Summer of riots- taxes should go to the poor

-         King is having feasts while the rest of France is hungry


Aim: How did the National Assembly attempt to Reform France?


August 1789- “Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen”

  1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.  Social distinctions can be based only upon the common good.
  2. The aim of every political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man.  These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.
  3. The source for all sovereignty is essentially in the nation (that is, the people); no body, no individual can exercise authority that does not emanate from it expressly.
  4. Liberty consists in the power to do anything that does not injure others; accordingly, the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those that assure to the other members of society the enjoyment of these same rights.  These limits can be determined only by law.
  5. The law can forbid only such actions as are injurious to society.  Nothing can be forbidden by the law, and no one can be constrained to do that which it does not decree.
  6. Law is the expression of the general will.  All citizens have the right to take part personally, or by their representatives, in its enactment.  It must be the same for all, being equal in its eyes, are equally eligible to all public dignities, places, and employments, according to their capacities, and without other distinction than that of their merits and talents.
  7. No man can be accused, arrested, or detained, except in the cases determined by the law and according to the forms which it has prescribed.  Those who call for, expedite, execute, or cause to be executed arbitrary orders should be punished; but every citizen summoned or seized by virtue of the law ought to obey instantly; he makes himself culpable by resistance.
  8. The law ought to establish only punishments that are strictly and obviously necessary, and no one should be punished and promulgated prior to the offence and legally applied.
  9. Every man being presumed innocent until he has been declared guilty, if it is judged indispensable to arrest him, all severity that may be necessary to secure his person ought to be severely suppressed by the law.
  10. No one should be disturbed on account of his opinions, even religious, provided their manifestations does not trouble the public order as established by law
  11. The free communication of thoughts and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man; every citizen can then speak, write, and print freely, save for the responsibility for the abuse of this liberty in the cases determined by law.
  12.  The guarantee of the rights of man and citizen necessitates a public force (that is, law-enforcement officers); this force is then instituted for the advantage of all and not for the particular use of those to whom it is entrusted.
  13. For the maintenance of the public force and for the expenses of administration a general tax is indispensable; it should be equally apportioned among all the citizens according to their means.
  14.  All citizens have the right to ascertain, by themselves or through their representatives, the necessary amount of public taxation, to consent to it freely, to follow the use of it, and to determine the quota, the assessment, the collection, and the duration of it.
  15. Society has the right to call for an account by every public agent of its administration
  16. Any society in which the guarantee of the rights is not assured, or the separation of powers is not determined, has no constitution.
  17. Property being a sacred and inviolable right, no one can be deprived of it, unless a legally established public necessity eveidently requires it, under the condition of a just and prior indemnity.


Reform (change) the “Old Regime”- the old system in France


August 4th 1789- enacted reforms


1791- new constitution (The Tricdor Badge- red white and blue- became the emblem of the revolution)

Slogan of the Revolution: “Liberty, equality(before the law), fraternity(brotherhood-everybody worked together)- to the death!”


New Constitution: (of 1791)- changes to the “Old Regime”

-         All male citizens equal in the eyes of law

-         Limited power of monarchy

-         Established Legislative Assembly- elected by taxpaying male citizens

-         Abolished special privileges and announced end to feudalism

-         Taxes are levied according to ability to pay

-         Abolished guilds, forbade labor unions

-         Compensated nobles for lands seized by the peasants (the Great Fear)

-         Declare freedom of religion *

-         Took over and sold church lands (to pay off deficit) *

-         Placed the French Catholic Church under control of the state*

-         Provided that bishops and priests be elected and receive government* salaries

*= Caused the most problems for Assembly


Constitution of September 1791


Power in Government

~ Neither the nobility nor any other feudal titles exist

~ The legislative power is delegated to a National Assembly…freely elected by the people

~ The executive power is delegated to the king

~ The judicial power is delegated to judges who are elected by the people

~ The person of the King is sacred

~There is no authority superior to the law, the King rules under the rule of law 

Civil Liberties

~ All citizens are admissible to offices…the only qualifications being their virtues and talents

~ All citizens shall be given the liberty to:

               *Come and go as they please

    • Speak, write, print, and publish their opinions
    • Worship as they please
    • Assemble peacefully
    • All the rights which go with the ownership of property may not be taken away



Aim: Why did the French Revolution turn radical? (1791-1795)


Spectrum of Political Opinion in National Assembly

A.     Radical

Favors extreme changes in government policy(no monarch-republic)

B.     Liberal

Favors some changes in government policy

C.     Moderate

Open to minor changes in policy

D.    Conservative

Favors maintaining the status quo (same-limited monarchy)

E.     Reactionary

Favors a return to post traditional policies (monarch)


Royalists: nobles/church return the king


“Reign of Terror”- Robespierre- “It is necessary to stifle the domestic (internal) and foreign (external) enemies of the Republic or perish with them…”- the basis of popular government in time of the revolution is both virtue and terror.


Stages of Revolution

Stage 1: Activity of writers who denounce existing conditions and satirize common practices. The writers provide new goals and ideas (Enlightenment writers)

Stage 2: Public dissatisfaction culminates in riots, assassinations, and other acts of violence (Bread riots, women walk on Versailles, Bastille Day)

Stage 3: The ruling group is intimidated into making repeated concessions until power is transferred. (sometimes give up power willingly)

Stage 4: The reformers carry out their jobs

Stage 5: The new reforms divide the nation into rival groups (left, center, right)

Stage 6: Radicals seize power and attempt to impose their views on the nation

Stage 7: The public tires of the radicals, thus allowing moderates to regain power and restore order



Chapter 17 Sections 4-5, Pages 434-440:

  1. Define- Universal manhood suffrage: every man could vote, regardless if he owned property or not

National Convention: governmental assembly of delegates from France who ruled the country for three years.  It ended the rule of the monarchy and began the rule of a republic.  It was an equivalent of the United States’ Congress.  Made up of Girondists and Jacobins.

-         Held their first assembly in September 1792

-         Nobody supported the king

Three main groups
    1. On the rightà Girondists”- many of them came from the department of the Girande in southwestern france
    2. Jacobins” à members of a radical club of that name; sat on the left.  Among the most powerful of this group was George-Jacques Donton and Maximilien (xtreme radicals that wanted reform benefiting all the classes)
    3. A group of delegates that had no definite views; later most of those delegates came to favor the Jacobins

Committee of Public Safety= In 1793- set up in order to direct the French army in defending the country and subduing foreign invaders.  Established the Revolutionary Tribunal to put enemies of the French Revolution on trial.

Conscription= the draft- all men between the ages 18 and 45 were liable for military service; adopted by the Committee of Public Safety

Reign of Terror= the convention made a systematic program in order to suppress opposition to the republic; this lasted from September 1793 to July 1794.

Directory= 1795àThis was the name of the government created by the revised Constitution in 1795.   This government was run by five executives called directors.  It ruled France for four years.  The Directory displeased many people, and the five directors were always arguing.  The Directory was a weak form of government and experienced protests and riots.  Eventually, it went bankrupt.

-         Governed France for a few years, but neither the radicals or the conservatives were happy about it.

-         The five directors were selfish and constantly fought with each other- couldn’t solve France’s problems

-         Prices skyrocketed, and the peasants and the poor people of France suffered as a result of thatàthe directors made no effort to improve their desperate situation.

-         Directors didn’t interfere with corrupt business leaders

The economic situation got badàcrowds rebelled and argued that the government wasn’t helpingàdirectors made no effort to improve their desperate situation.

-         Soon became as unpopular as the old regimeàrepeated history- went bankrupt and made way for military dictatorship.



Aim: How did Napoleon Rule France? (1799- 1815)


The French Revolution (1789-1815)

Reign of Terror(1793)

Directory (1795)



Napoleon was a general at age 26,  and suppressed the uprisings in Paris that tried to stop the establishment of the directory, and therefore made him very popular with the citizens of France.  He was also an excellent organizer both politically and in military actions.  He also had military genius.

  Napoleon became the leader of France because conditions got bad and people thought that only Napoleon could be victorious abroad and bring it home.  Then, in 1799, three directors resigned and two were arrestedàmade way for change, troops with bayonets entered the legislature and made most of the members leave (and those that remained left the government to Napoleon and his fellow plotters~ “I found the crown of France lying on the ground, and I picked it up with a sword.”

 . People accepted Napoleon’s dictatorship because: 1- wanted stability and sick of the chaos; 2- afraid to protest because feared arrest; 3- Didn’t try to abolish changes from the revolution, but rather supported them.  Also, he respected the Declaration of the Rights of Man, and didn’t restore serfdom and feudal privileges= reassured the peasants that they would keep their land and it wouldn’t be taken away from them.


-         “He was like an expert chess player”- strategy- his opponent was the entire world, which he wanted to control

-         “I am the constitution”- making power-absolutist

I.                   Early successes

  1. Victorious general- Austria, Germany, etc.
  2. Coup d’etat- when military takes over and overthrows directory which was corrupt and weak in 1799
  3. Established “Consulate”- a governing 3-man board
  4. 1804- declares himself “Emperor” of France- invited pope to crown him emperor- Napoleon grabs crown and crowns himself- shows he derives power for himself
  5. Conducted Plebiscite- public ballot- yes/no- people of France public strongly support him

II.                Reforms (order, security, and efficiency)

  1. Regulates economy- tries to restore prosperity- keep people happy

Controls prices, encourages new industry and builds roads and canals

  1. Public schools under government control- wants marked soldiers- taught to be loyal to the government
  2. 1801- Concordat- makes peace with the church
  3. Encourages émigrés to return to France(nobles)- had to take an oath of loyalty- many were high ranking soldiers and had control of wealth.
  4. Recognized sale of church land to peasants
  5. Careers open to “talent”- not favoritism
  6. Napoleonic Code:
    1. Equality of all citizens before the law
    2. Religious toleration
    3. Advancement based on merit

Helped Jews- they were all over the world and wanted their support



Aim: How did Napoleon’s Empire Fall?


 Building an Empire (1804- 1814)

  1. Excellent battlefield strategy/ very motivational speaker (Austerlitz)
  2. Conquers and annexes territory (everywhere he went he put a family member on the throne- “nepotism”)
  3. Allies himself with several countries
  4. Britain was not part of his empire- “Tiger and the Shark”- tiger is Napoleon, he dominates the land.  Great Britain is the shark- controls the seas.  To conquer an island you must have a strong fleet- France lacks this and is defeated.
  5. Napoleon rules out invasion of Britain- how does he bring them to their knees?
    1. Blockade- Great Britain’s economy depended on trade, on commercial contact- “nation of shopkeepers”- Napoleon’s strategy is called “Economic Warfare”. Continental System.
    2. Britain’s response was a blockade upon European ports
  6. Restrictions on trade have a negative impact on Europe- decline of trade, scarcity of goodsèprices go up (supply and demand), businesses fail, unemployment went up, people resort to smuggling- this is the “beginning of the end” because people began to resent him for their loss of business.


Napoleons Downfall

  1. Merchants resent the continental system
  2. British opposition
  3. Nationalism- in French Revolution, fought for people-as he spreads these ideas- they get tired of French.
  4. Peninsula War (1808-1814)- Spain and Portugal- guerilla warfare (“Little War”- their southern American colonies soon declare their independence).  Spain and Portugal start to rebel against Napoleon’s forcesàdefeat themàguerilla warfare” in Spain- you don’t fight in a straightforward manner- hit and run- you hide

Spain has colonies in South America- while Spain is fighting France, what will the colonies do?- start to declare independence (Peru, Mexico, Chile, etc.)

  1. Russia resigns from Continental System- Napoleon responds by attacking Russia (Le Grande Army- 600,000 men).  Napoleon invades Russia with roughly 600,000 men- ‘Le Grande Army’ and leaves with less than 4/5 (30,000 men).  To resist Napoleon, the Russians used a new strategy- instead of meeting the French army in open battle, the Russians retreated slowly, drawing the French deeper and deeper into Russia.  In September, Napoleon’s Forces finally reach Moscow, which the Russians had evacuated.  The day after the French entered it, a huge fire, probably started by Russian Patriots, destroyed the city.  With the Russian winter looming, Napoleon didn’t know what to do- he could either chase the Russian army farther to the east or turn back to the west.

He waited too long to make his decision to retreatàbitter cold and driving snow crossed the vast Russian plain once againàtemp. dropped and the Russians began to attack French forces without mercy.

Finally, Napoleon retreats.  As England, Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia fight, they finally defeated Napoleon- Lipseg, Germany.

  In Paris, Napoleon was forced to abdicate(give up his crown and throne).  He was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo.  Finally sent to the South Atlantic- to an island (St. Helena)in exile-and died there.


Napoleon didn’t realize that Britain also trades with the colonies in America and with India- when he cut off trade.


Defeated, abdicates, retires to Elba Island, escapes, comes back to France as a hero for 100 days- final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.


Homework #8


1.  What was known as the Continental System was a French Blockade of the British isles.  This blockade served as a trade embargo upon Britain, which the French hoped would render the British without trade or profits.  Unfortunately, the British responded with a similar international blockade on France, making trade with either country very difficult

2.  Napoleon decided to invade Russia because it was apparent that it refused to obey the French Continental System, and such behavior was inappropriate for allies of France.  This infuriated Napoleon and led him to invade Russia.  However, as the Russian army was attacked, they slowly moved deeper into the recesses of Russia, and began to destroy things of value in the towns that the French were destined to pass through.  Eventually, they had drawn the French army into the middle of the country with the Russian winter coming, which left them helpless and caused them to retreat.

3.Napoleon’s defeat in Russia was a disaster because it showed how unprepared the French army had been and it pointed out its weaknesses.  Not only that, but the French had taken 4/5 casualties.  This served as a major embarrassment for France because the Russians had taken advantage of their vast knowledge of their homeland, and put it to use in the swift destruction of the French army.



Quote- “My glory is not to have won forty battles, for Waterloo’s defeat will destroy the memory of as many victories.  But what nothing will destroy, what will live eternally is my Civil Code.”- Napoleon’s Legacy:

1.Napoleon’s Code

-         No privileges of birth

-         All men are equal under the law

-         Close to older French laws and customs to be acceptable to the French public and legal profession

-         Moderate, well organized

-         As a result, the code not only endured in France, but has been adopted with local modifications, in many other countries

  1. Impact on Spain and colonies

-         So weakened the Spanish government that for a period of several years, it lost effective control of its colonies in Latin America.

-         But during the period of De Facto autonomy that the Latin American independence movements commenced.

  1. Louisiana Purchase- now US can be a major rival to England- “the enemy of my enemy is my friend”:

-         Sold a vast tract of land to the US because…

-         Realized that the French possessions in North America might be difficult to protect from British conquest, and was short on cash

-         Largest peaceful transfer of land in all of history

-         Transformed the US into a nation of near-continental size

-         Doubtful that the US would be a great power today without the Louisiana Purchase

-         Napoleon wasn’t solely responsible for itàUS government clearly played a part, also- but French offer was such a bargain that any American government would have accepted itàbut the decision to sell the Louisiana territory came through the arbitrary judgement of a single individual, Napoleon Bonaparte.

  1. Spread ideals of the French Revolution


Napoleon called, by some, “Son of the Revolution”

Others say he was a “Traitor of the Revolution”.


Long Term Causes

-         Corrupt, inconsistent, and insensitive leadership

-         Prosperous members of the third estate resent privileges of first and second estates

-         Spread of enlightenment ideas



Immediate Causes

-         Huge government debt

-         Poor harvests and rising price of bread

-         Failure of Louis XVI to accept financial reforms

-         Formation of the National Assembly

-         Storming of the Bastille


The French Revolution


Immediate Effects

-         France adopts its first written constitution

-         French feudalism ends

-         Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen adopted

-         Monarchy abolished

-         Revolutionary France fights coalition of European powers

-         Reign of Terror


Long Term Effects

-         Napoleon gains power

-         Napoleonic Code established

-         French conquests spark nationalism

-         French public schools get set up


Connections Today

-         French people remain proud of Napoleon’s glory days

-         French law reflects Napoleonic Code

-         Metric system, set up after the revolution, in use worldwide

-         After centuries of power, French political and military influence declines in Europe



Aim: How did the Congress of Vienna (1815) attempt to stabilize Europe following Napoleon?


Trying to “turn the clock back” to the Old Regime- complete monarchy

Metternich-leader of Congress of Vienna- reactionary

  1. All countries should be repaid for expenses incurred while fighting the French
  2. Political power in France and its conquered lands should be returned to those who ruled prior to Napoleon (Bourbons)
  3. No country should ever dominate Europe. (weakened France)

-         Formed “Quadruple Alliance” to maintain peace and balance of power, and to prevent revolution

-         Metternich was against liberalism, revolution, and freedom of speech.

-         Established a secret police force to make sure that there was non

4.      government, responsible for maintaining peace and the balance of power established at Vienna.

5.      Prince Metternich wished to abolish completely any ideas of revolution and of liberalism.  Liberalism was a movement which supported the rights of man and freedom of speech, religion, press, etc.  He aimed to preserve absolutism, and achieved this through a secret police system in Austria.  Any liberals that were caught were imprisoned, fined, or exiled



Aim: How did Production Change in the Late 1700s to early 1800s?




Industrial Revolutionà



I.                   Agricultural Revolution

Farming Change

A.     Enclosure Movement- combine lands (enclosing or fencing) to form larger-land holding that were more efficient for large-scale farming


  1. Increased crop production
  2. Experimentation
  3. Smaller farmer cant compete- move to city- “Urbanization”= growth of cities

B.     New Invention

  1. Seed Drill (Jethro Tull)

à Less need for many famers

Some move to cities

  1. Crop rotation (Townshend)

àAlternating crops of different kinds to preserve the soil

  1. Iron Plow (Ransome)

àEfficient farming

Crop production increases

Less need for farmers

Move to cities


II.                Population Explosion

England 1700- 5 million

1800- 9 million

Europe 1700- 120 million

1800- 190 million

Why?   (more food:)

-         Ate healthy

-         Improved hygiene

-         Less famine

-         Improved medical care

              Vaccine smallpox (1796)


III.             Domestic SystemàFactory System (ßMore demand)

  1. Time consuming
  2. Very costly
  3. Inefficient


With the population, came a greater demand for the goods:

 First came John Kay’s Flying Shuttle for hand loom:

-         Wider fabric, faster weaving

-         More yarn needed…..


James Hargreave’s Spinning Jenny (home)/ Arkwright’s Water Frame (factory)


Led to Crompton’s Spinning Mule

-         Faster spinning-increased thread

-         More thread than weavers use


Led to Edmund Cartwright’s Power Loom- more cotton needed….


Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin

-         Removes seeds faster

-         Growers raise more cotton

-         US main exporter

-         Slavery increases

-         More cotton needed


HandàwateràSteam Engine (coal)


-         Can be located anywhere- not stream

-         Works 24/7- doesn’t depend on flow


-         Pollution


Additional Inventions

Steam Boat



Bessemer Process

Machine gun- 1861

Dynamite-Nobel-originally for mountains and mines

Telephone- 1876

Gasoline automobile-1889


Population GrowthàGrowth of CitiesàUrbanizationàOvercrowding(tenements)àpollution(includes noise pollution)

Tenements- very little light, many families share one bathroom

Factory- all the factors of production in one place


Homework #10







John Kay

Flying shuttle

Moved the “woof” across the loom more quickly.

Weavers could weave thread faster now.

James Hargreaves

Spinning jenny

Spin out thread quicker

Thread produced eight times faster now

Richard Arkwright

Water frame

Spin out thread by use of water power

Thread production automated by water

Samuel Crompton

Spinning mule

Combined the spinning jenny and water frame

Fine-quality thread produced amply

Edmund Cartwright

Power loom

Weave cloth by water power

Weaving output multiplied by 200

Eli Whitney

Cotton gin

Removed the seeds from cotton

One person could now do the job of that of 50

James Watt

Steam engine

Used to propel vehicles such as cars & trains

Steam replaced water as main power source

Henry Bessemer

Bessemer process

Removed carbon to facilitate steel-making

Steel could now be made cheaply and efficiently

Charles Goodyear

Rubber vulcanization

Mixed rubber with sulfur to make it more elastic

Became the basis of the modern rubber industry

George Stephenson


Used steam to propel a moving engine

Established ways of transportation around G.B.

Robert Fulton


Steam-propelled boat for travelling across rivers

Steamboats soon appeared all over the world

Samuel Morse


Used system of dots and dashes to communicate across large distances

Telegraph soon became world standard of communication



Aim: How were the Lives of People affected by the Industrial Revolution?

Theme: Human Rights


A.     Tenements- Little light, few windows, shared bathrooms-overcrowding

Built as a square- those in the middle had no windows- little fresh air or light

-         No real sewage- those conditions led to diseases


B.     Middle Class- more spacious housing.  Could afford servants.


C.     Child Labor is predominant in factories and mining

Why?  1. Lower wages

            2.Smaller-this was a needed trait in coal mining, as well as in working machines

  1.  Very impressionable

No real education for these children- they worked all day.

Middle class children were the ones who received education.


Ad from the time:

“Wanted: A few sober and industrious families of at least 5 children each, over the age of 8 years.  Widows with large families would do well to attend this notice.”

Widows- could take advantage of them

Families- work well together, more manageable

Wages- determined by how much person can make doing other jobs; these children can’t do other jobs so their wages are low.

These wages are also determined by scarcity of workers- supply and demand.


12 hour work days:

The problem with women working is that they must take care of their children


Argument: These kids worked on farms before anyway, now they are making money for their family (the skilled workers lost their jobs)


Conditions are dangerous as well.  No compensation, no insurance for workers, while there were frequent injuries.


Big difference between middle class(doctors, lawyers, merchants, factory owners) and the working class- they would exploit the working class.  They weren’t sympathetic to the working class.


Middle Class women stayed in the house, hired servants, later on began no to marry and to work (many are teachers)


As a result of cheap goods being produced, working class standard of living is raised- have a little left over after expenses.


Homework #11


Globalization= a trend toward a single worldwide market without respect to national borders. 

“Free Trade”- trade without tariffs(taxes) or restrictions


1). What is meant by oppressive child Labor?

When children are under the minimum age of work, have longer work hours than allowed by law, the employers pay the children very little or no wages at all, work in dangerous conditions.

2). Why do children go to work instead of school?

Parents are so desperate for money that they must send their children to work.

3). What is the Fair Labor Standard Act?

Roosevelt- 1938-shortens the normal work week to 40 hours, overtime and time and a half, minimum wage.

4). Why do employers want children to work?

Cost less, easily controlled, wont complain.

5). Do international laws exist to protect children?

Yes- but not strongly enforced.  Agricultural industries still don’t have many restrictions.

6). What type of work do children perform?

Weavers, miners, factory workers, and soldiers.

7). Who was Iqbal Marish?

A boy in Pakistan-sold to pay for wedding of his sister- made rugs for a few pennies a week.  Murdered, believed to be by factory owners enraged by his speaking out.



Aim: How Did Modern Capitalism Emerge from the Industrial Revolution?


(Great Britain originally had strict laws on transferring machines, people, and information- wanted a monopoly on their inventions.  This policy didn’t work, however.)


Commercial Capitalism- mainly deals with trade-post-Crusades

-         Spices, nutmeg, coffee, pepper

-         Joint Stock Companies- British East India Co.

-         Reintroduction of money


Industrial Capitalism- producing and manufacturing goods

-         Mechanization- use of machines- first used in the textile industry


Capitalism- 5 Elements (Pure Capitalism)

  1. Private ownership- individual owns means of production and distribution of goods (can go into partnership if not enough money)
  2. Free Enterprise- you can run your business as you see fit

Individuals are free to enter any business they wish.

  1. Profit Motive
  2. Competition- forces prices to go down and quality to be higher
  3. Supply and Demand- determines the price


1. “Wealth of Nations”- Adam Smith- Philosopher- 1776

àNatural Laws” of economics was that individuals should be left free to pursue their own economic self-interest

 àThe state should in no way interrupt the “free play” of natural economic forces, by imposing government regulations on the economy,ßLaissez Faire- “let do”

àCapitalism= “Free Market” (from regulations) economy

3 Exceptions:



Roads and canals

The individual cant control those


2.Thomas Malthus- “Essay on Principles of Population”- late 1700s

-         Said that food production cant keep up with the population growth(ßwrong! We see that today)

-         Didn’t realize the technology that would improve farming

-         Agreed with Adam Smith that the government should butt out

-         His solution: people should stop having babies-its up to the people

Naturally the population would decrease-war and famine- also up to the people


3. David Ricardo- agreed with Malthus

-         Theory-“Iron Law of Wages

When wages are high, families have more children.  More children lead to more labor(workers).  More labor leads to lower wages and more unemployment.

-         Solution: stop having babies-up to individual


4.Jeremy Benthon (1800)

-         Utilitarianism= the idea that the goal of society should be the “greatest happiness for the greatest number of people”

-         Government should therefore make laws that make people happy

-         Institutions, laws and actions should be judged by its utility- usefulness-individual freedom but government needs to intervene under certain circumstances.


5. John Stuart Mill

-         Unrestricted competition- favors strong over the weak- he says that this is not fair.  Says that government needs to step in and help the working class.

-         Advocated two things-giving people education, and giving the working class and women the right to vote.  They have to know what’s good for them, and need to vote to win reforms and change the system.


Socialism- (opposite of capitalism)- public should control and own the factors of production- are operated for the welfare of all people- government runs it, actively plans the economy rather than depending on the “free market capitalism”


Homework #12




Aim: To examine Karl Marx’s Theory of Communism

Theme: Economic System


Two Books: The Communist Manifesto (1847) and Das Kapital (1867)


I.                   Economic Interpretation of History- all of history is about the class struggles.  In industrial society the two that are struggling are the factory owner vs. the workers, called by Marx the Bourgeoisie (the factory owner etc.- the “haves”) vs. the Proletariats (the factory workers- the “have-nots”)


II.                Exploitation of the Workers

The rich live off the labor of the factory workers.  Here the only difference between them is the exploitation- who’s working and who’s hanging out.

In America there is nothing wrong with this- the owner has taken risks by investing his money in it-if the business goes down, he loses everything- workers can find another job, however.  America says- “You take the risk, you get the profit”.


III.             Communist Revolution needed to end this exploitation.  The Proletariat revolt against the owner.  He called it a “worldwide” revolution of workers.


IV.              Dictatorship of the Proletariat- workers control the means of production, and produce what society needs.


à “From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.”

-         Everyone, all citizens would be equal and share in the profits- no private property

-         Class would be eliminatedàClassless Society”

-         No need for government- “withers away”


This never happened- every communist country has always had a government that “protected the revolution and the workers.”


Aim: How did the Lives of the Working Class Improve?


I.                   Protest Movement

A.     Lundites- smashed machines- thought that machines took away their jobs- in reality, it created more jobs

B.     Chartists- “People Charter” petition-wanted to pay members of Parliament.  If they had no salary, only rich people would be members, thus allowing only their wants to be voiced.


II.                Reforms

Voting rights/working conditions

Very little changes- women still couldn’t vote

“Rotten Boroughs”- very few people-still sent lots of people to parliament

Homework #13


III.             Unions

a). Sabotage



b). Capital- factory owners and management:

à”Black List”



c). Collective bargaining

Management and union representatives meet to negotiate


IV.              Abolition- 1830

-         Slavery was banned to the British Empire

-         William Wilberforce- famous abolitionist


V.                 Women’s Suffrage

-         Women also got involved in unions and abolition movements- decided to create movement for their own rights

-         Right to vote was denied because men felt that they should stay at home, and that they got too emotional, and because politics is a very dirty business.

-         Stanton, Susan B, Anthony

-         Utah and Wyoming- 1st States

-         US- 1920- 19th amendment (some women had been arrested, went on hunger strike).  Needed strike ratification, and got it.

-         Britain- Emmeline Pankhurst – WSPU

1918- over age 30 could vote

1928- over age 21 could vote




1). Where did people get their sense of identity throughout much of history?

Common heritage, language, religion, etc.  These are the bonds, the glue, that bring a people together.

-         Nationality- a belief, in a common ethnic ancestry- a belief that may or may not be true

-         Language- different dialects of one language, one dialect chosen as the “national language”

-         Culture- a shared way of life (food, dress, behavior, ideals)

-         History- a common past, common experiences

-         Religion- a religion shared by all or most of the people.

*(Originally, America did have all these things in common- now, it’s a “melting point”)

-         Territory- a certain territory that belongs to the ethnic groups, its “land”

Leads toàNation- State- defends the nation’s territory and its way of life

Represents the nation to the rest of the world

Embodies the people and its ideals.


Germany- 1860’s- made up of many different states with common language

How can they be united?

“Germany does not look to Prussia’s liberalism, but to her power…The great questions of the day are not to be decided by speeches but by blood(war) and iron(industry)”

- Bismarck



  1. Jealousy and fear of Prussia(strongest of the German states)
  2. Rivalry between Austria and Prussia
  3. Religious differences between Southern Catholics and Northern Protestants
  4. France opposed a powerful Germany



  1. Prussia forms Zollverein, an economic union.  Prussia led German states to wars against rivals.
  2. Prussia fought and won Seven Weeks War against Austria.
  3. Prussia fought German states allied with Prussia against France(creates common enemy)
  4. Prussia fought and won Franco-Prussian War.  Germany, in 1870, captured Alsace-Corraine from France- there was a lot of natural resources- iron and coal, there.

As a result, there was enormous industrial expansion, surpassing France and almost Great Britain!  Great Britain and Germany now become major rivals, and the French will want revenge on Germany(this all leads up to World War One).


Aim: Why did the Europeans embark on a policy of imperialism in the 1800s?

Theme: Power/conflict


Imperialism= domination(control) by one country of the political, economic or cultural life of another country or region

àleads to cultural diffusion



Indirect Rule

-         Local government officials were used

-         Limited self-rule

-         Goal: to develop future leaders

-         Government institutions are based on European styles but may have local rule, but from afar- did not have enough people for direct rule; local government can relate to people.


Direct Rule

-         Foreign officials brought in to rule

-         No self-rule

-         Goal: impose European culture-assimilation (ex: Moroccans speak French)

-         Government institutions are based only on European styles




16th-17th century

-         Mercantilism

-         Coastal/ports (inside was controlled by natives)

-         Slavery

-         Very little influence on other people’s lives


-         Conquered more land

-         Coastal and interior(sent Africans and Muslims)

-         Major impact on political, economic, cultural lives of natives.


Connection between Industrial Revolution and (New) Imperialism:

  1. As a result of Industrial Revolution, raw materials, resources, were needed
  2. Factory owners produced a lot of goods to realize profit-couldn’t sell all goods-needed new markets
  3. Outlet needed for growing population
  4. Steam ships-needed refueling stations-islands


  Political &Military Causes

-         Bases needed for merchant and naval vessels

-         National security

-         Nationalism

-         Prestige of global empire

-         Strong, centrally-governed nation-states


  Economic Causes

-         Need for natural resources

-         Desire to expand markets

-         Desire to invest profits

-         Outlet needed for growing population

-         Economies strengthened by Industrial Revolution




-         Advances in weaponry- maxim gun-like a machine gun cannon.  650 rounds/minute

-         Advances in medicine- Quinine- medicine fro bark of tree-cures malaria.  They can now go into Africa to explore without fear of dying from disease

-         Advances in travel- better steamships and railroads helping them to explore




-         Belief in Western superiority- Racism- felt responsibility to spread Christianity and “civilize” these natives

-         Paternalism- treat them as if they are children- need to raise them- “Half-devil, half-child”.

-         Darwin- “Survival of the fittest”àEuropeans adopt this theory- they have factories, technology, etc.- they should naturally be able to conquer the Africans and Asians.

-         Increased European self-confidence



White Man’s Burden: by Rudyard Kipling- duty as a civilized country to civilize other people- this is racist L

“Take up the White Man’s Burden-

Send forth the best ye breed-

Go bind your sons to exile

To serve your captives’ need;

To wait in heavy harness

On fluttered folk and wild-

Your new-caught sullen peoples,

Half devil and half child.”





Aim: How did European Imperialism impact Africa?


I.                    Pre-Colonialism (pre-Imperialism)- 1600s, 1700s

A.     Europeans occupied only the coastline- slave trade (not inland because of Sahara Desert, and in center- Congo- hot, malaria- rainforest; Kalahari- desert

B.     Mostly interested in slavery

C.     Africa- “Unknown”/Dark; Continent- hard to explore-

-         Sahara/Kalahari Deserts

-         Rainforest- equator zone

-         Malaria

-         Rivers are not navigable- rapids, waterfalls


II. “Scramble for Africa” 1850-1914

àno sense of order at all

    1. Explorers
  1. Dr David Livingstone- wanted to bring Christianity, commerce, and civilization
  2. Henry Stanley (sent to find Livingstone)-wrote books about explorations
    1. British, French, Portuguese, Belgium, Spanish, Italians (Egypt and Sudan-British; Northern Africa, Ivory Coast-French; Congo-Belgium)

Independent Areas:

Liberia- Given to freed slaves by president Monroe

Ethiopia- fought back and defeated Italians

    1. Berlin Conference- 1884

-European countries met to set rules for dividing Africa (Africans not included).

    1. Motives

European: Nationalism, Economic Competition, European racism, missionary impulse

External: Maxim gun, railroads and steamships, cure for malaria

Internal: Variety of cultures and languages, low level of technology, ethnic strife.


IV.              Effects

A.     Africans lost right to rule themselves

B.     Africans forced to adopt European customs, languages, and way of lifeàlost heritage(cultures)

C.     African farmers lost their lands to Europeans(ßforced to grow cash-crops-cotton tobacco, etcàless farmlandàfamine)

D.    Africans were forced to work for Europeans at low wages

E.     Africans had to pay taxes but could not vote

F.      Europeans made artificial boundaries(borders) without regard to tribal homelands.

àSplit tribe in different colonies

àRival tribes forced to live together


Ethnic tensionsàTribalism=loyal to your tribe (ethnic group) rather than the nation- RWANDA (Hutu and Tutsis )


Aim: How did British Rule impact India?


“The sun never sets on the British Empire”

“(India) The brightest jewel in the British crown”- the most profitable of their colonies

Lipton iced tea, cotton, indigo dye, jute (plant used to make twain)


British East India Com.- controls 3/5 of India:

Unpopular moves:

  1. Sepoys= native soldiers-forced to fight outside of India
  2. Allow widows to remarry- (sutee-widows commit suicide)


 Sepoy Mutiny/ Rebellion 1857

.British government sends troops, put down the rebellion


1858-British government takes full control of India


Primary goal=make $- Incorporate India into the British economy

Large market and source of raw materials

“Modernize” IndiaàWestern technology (R&R and telegraph) and culture


Suez Canal- 1869- cut down time and distance to India

British “flood” the Indian market with cheap manufactured goods

-         Destroys Indians domestic system-hand weaving industry

-         Farmers pushed to grow cash crops- reduces Indians self-sufficiency

-         Cleared forests- “deforestation”


British Impact


Brought peace and order

Revised legal system to promote justice

R&R/telegraph (more for business)

Educated Indians –work in civil serviceà exposure to European ideas helped fuel nationalist movements



Looked down on Indian culture; dismissed their achievements, cash-crops.  Indians lost self-sufficiency-reduced food production.

Cheap manufactured goods ruin India’s domestic system


  Homework #15


a.      The British controlled India by way of taking advantage of all the populace.  They exploited quarrels between the little states that they had formed, as well as fights between the two religions present in India (Hindu and Muslim).

b.      British rule brought Western culture and civilization to India.  It brought the English language, Western customs, sciences, and arts.  However, the British rule ended up causing a great many disputes between the people, and eventually, a rebellion, in which many Indians died.

c.       The British took advantage of the people and used the regions’ fierce disputes for themselves, in order to win control of those regions.  They also took advantage of the religions formed in India, especially by using cow and pig fat on cartridges for guns during the Sepoy Rebellion. 

d.      The imposition of Western culture led to conflict because the natives disliked the British attempts to take control of their lives and force them to follow their culture.  Also, the British forced the Sepoys to fight wars for the British in Afghanistan, and they were dissatisfied with this.

e.      Approaches to nationalism in India include imposition of British culture, use of the colony to better the advantage of Britain, and on the Indians’ side, the unification of the Sepoys to rebel against the British



Aim: How did China fall victim to European Imperialism?


I.                   China- Prior to 1800

-         Ming Dynasty

-         Very little interest in trade with foreign countries

-         Foreigners= barbarians- Chinese looked down on them- required to kowtow- bow down to the emperor.

-         “Middle Kingdom”- ethnocentrism


II.                European Increased Interest in China

A.     Dynasty in decline

B.     Industrial Revolution created need for a market

C.     Trade in tea, silk, porcelain…


III.             Trade Imbalance

China- trade surplus

Europe-trade deficit

àEuropeans then trade opium

-         Worker productivity declines-everybody’s high on opium

-         When the emperor’s daughter O.D-ed on opium, the Chinese had enough.  They seized about 9 million dollars worth of opium from the British and burned it.

èResult: Opium War- 1839

Chinese are defeated- result is Treaty of Nanjing:

-         China had to pay war damages (indemnity)

-         4 ports open to British trade

-         British given Hong Kong Island

-         British given “most favored nation” with regard to trade

-         China granted extraterritoriality rights to foreigners


Aim: Africa, China, India, Japan è How was Japan able to resist Imperialism and becomes Imperialist?


I.                    Geography- Japan

-         Many small islands-scattered over 1500 miles

-         80%mountains

-         Japan lacks resources-lead and oil

-         15%is arable (farmable)

-         Earthquakes, volcanoes, and tornadoes


II. Japan- Pre-1800

Act of Seclusion- nobody can be sent abroad (trade, etc.-no contact with the outside)

-         Isolated

-         Cut off ties with the outside

-         Against Christianity (believed in Shinto and Buddha- “The Way”)


IV.              Commodore Perry (US) 1853

Visits Japan, wanting trade-give them that option or will have war

“Treaty of Kanogawa- 1854

Mission: Opens trade and harbors to refueling ships

Terms: Opens two ports so US ships can take on supplies

US allowed to establish an embassy in Japan

1860: Japan granted foreigners permission to trade at treaty ports

1867: Tokugawa shogun forced to step down

Japanese angered at shogun for giving in to foreigners demands and fear that he was losing control over the country


Emperor Mutsuhito A.K.A “Meiji”- turns westernized(in the beginning he wore kimonos, and after wore western garb)

~Enlightened Rule~


V.                 Other countries also win concessions from China

-         Start to fight vs. China.  Once English start coming in, other countries do, too!  Carved China into “Spheres of Influence”

= Country had exclusive trading rights- only in that area can that country do business

(British took port near India and the Yanghasee River that had large population- could trade)

-         Russia and Japan in a conflict with eachother

-         America late in getting to China but wanted some of the actionà “Open Door Policy”- no exclusive trading rights, China can trade with anyone (no sphere of influence).


VI.              Chinese government response

àEmpress Ci Xi


Confucian valuesàoppose foreigners

Society of Harmonious Fists= Boxer 1800

US foreigners (Christians) brought in foreign people to teach, and sent Japanese abroad to learn about Western Culture

àTo be self-sufficient of foreign aid

Japanese Industrialization

1839- First foreign loan negotiated with the British

1855- First steamship


Territory expandsàimperialists!

Late 1800- get they beat Russia (àbig vs. Japan- small)?

Because they had more technology

Why did they want more territory?

-         Resources (iron, coal, iron…)

-         Win respect from other countries

-         Need food for growing population


Homework #16


    1. Confucian attitudes towards trades during the Ming Dynasty were particularly negative.  Merchants were at the bottom of the social classes, and all trade was regarded as something bad.  The emperors didn’t believe that trade helped China, and instead instituted a tribute system from Japan, Korea, and Tibet, but only fort the glory and security of China.
    2. The decline of the Qing Dynasty does not follow the “traditional pattern” because its downfall was not similar to past dynasties.  Rather than another person rising to power and defeating the Qing army, then claiming the Mandate of Heaven, the dissatisfied population of China challenged the government of the dynasty.  The Qing Dynasty did not provide enough officials in the government per capita.  They did not provide enough security for China, as North-Asian tribes were able to invade.  Also, the high-ranking members of the government forced local officials to pay them bribes, and not much money was spent on assisting the Chinese people, but most of it would end up in the pockets of these officials.
    3. Great Britain was very interested in China mainly for their production of tea.  The Chinese government, however, was very picky in allowing trade with Britain, and only allowed a few Chinese merchants to trade with the British East India Company.  They were very strict about their terms of trade, and forced the British living in China to follow Chinese laws.



Aim: How did Latin Americans Achieve Independence?



Why in 1800s did these countries declare Independence?

  1. Influence by the enlightenment
  2. American (1776) Revolution and French Revolution (1789)
  3. How come able to revolt in early 1800s?- Spain and Portugal weakened by the war with Napoleon
  4. Unfair treatment that they had (Native Americans and Creoles)


Bolivar (quote)à feels that colonial rule makes people’s life limited- restricted to farming.

-         No better off than a serf

-         Spain is greedy- no matter how much they do, not enough


Europeans didn’t want other people to grow certain crops because they wanted them to buy it from the Europeans.

-         Had restriction/exploitation

-         Called for rebellion

After Independence?

Creoles replaced Peninsulars as power

Lack of education and lack of history of democracy


After independence, military takes over.  Roman Catholic Church has a lot of the power, and still inequality in Latin America.

Economic Dependence/Imperialism- colonized by Europeans for a long time and the Industrial Revolution- wanted resourcesàmade the L. Americans buy manufactured goods.


a.      No industry

b.      Wealthy ranchers (haciendas) became wealthier-more inequality.

Industrial Revolution and long periods of European Colonization:

South America becomes exporter of raw materials and importer on manufactured goods.

àLocal economies fail to develop

àWealthy haciendas-richer with more power

Latin America borrows money from foreignersàdefault in loansàforeigners take control of the resources.




US- Latin American Relations

US issues “Monroe Doctrine”- Monroe warned the Europeans (Spanish) not to interfere with independent Latin American countries (western hemisphere) and no further colonization (Columbia, Brazil, etc.).  Don’t mess with our wars and “backdoors”.  Europeans sent in troops to get the money that the country owed.

  The US didn’t like that because its an unstable environment.

  Roosevelt Corollary (addition to the Monroe Doctrine)- used to justify the US

Forced to interfere with Latin American affairsà “Speak softly but carry a big stick- your problems should go to a neutral person- the US

US Power:

    1. Collect money for loans
    2. To protect business interest



Homework #18

Read Chapter 21 Section 4

1. Define:

Haciendas- A large, self-sufficient farming estate.

3. The Roman Catholic Church had great power and great influence in Latin America. Missionaries came with explorers and conquistadors to convert the Indians to Christianity. On their mission they became close with the Indians, and even tried to prevent the national governments to abuse the Indians. By the 1700’s the Jesuits became extremely rich and powerful, because of haciendas, town property, mines, and thousands of slaves. By the mid 1700’s, the Spanish and Portuguese kings conquered these rich Jesuits, and acquired all of their land and property.




Toussaint L’ouverture

Led the first revolt in the Latin American colonies. He led the revolt, which gained Haiti, on the island of Hispanioli in the West Indies. It was under the French rule. He led a small group of black farm workers to their independence. The slaves grew sugarcane and coffee trees, under the control of French landowners. When the French revolution took place the free mulattoes wanted the same rights as French settlers. In 1794 the mulattoes and blacks united to gain their independence, which was acquired in 1804. In 1803 L’ouverture died in a French prison. iHiHH

Miguel Hidalgo

He led Creoles, mestizos, and Indians in their proclamation of independence for Mexico. He led an Indian army against the Spanish peninsulas, and Creoles. He started the first important independence in Mexico. In 1811, Hidalgo was excommunicated, after his armies won a few early victories.

Simon Blolivar

He was called the “liberator”. He led Latin Americans in a bloody civil war. He started his revolt in Caracas in 1810, but did not succeed in destroying Spain’s power in the viceroyalty of New Granada until 1819. Then he raised another army in what is called today Venezuela, crossed the Andes, and defeated the Spanish at Boyaca. He became president with almost absolute power in a nation called Great Colombia. The nation included the countries that are today, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama. Bolivar won a major battle in 1824 over the forces led by Spanish viceroy at Junin in Peru. By December that year revolutionists received their independence after winning the battle in Ayacucho. In 1825 the northern territory of Peru became a separate republic called Bolivia, in honor of Bolivar.

Jose de San Martin

He gathered an army and made a difficult crossing across the Andes into a place called Chile. He joined forced with the Chileans, led by Bernardo O’Higgins, and overcame Spanish resistance in 1818. From Chile he went north to conquer the city of Lima in Peru. He declared his independence for Peru in 1821, when the Spanish viceroy fled. Royalist forces still remained in Peru. There continued to be inner conflicts in Peru, and he was called to lead another uprising. He refused and turned his power to Simon Bolivar.


5. The British hoped to benefit from the Latin American independence. They were eager to continue trading with Latin America, because they thought they were very rich, even though they weren’t. The British also viewed Latin America as a useful ally against Europe, since Europe was becoming more conservative. It was because of this reason, that the British supplied the rebels with small amounts of weapons, primarily in South America.

6. It was difficult to unite Latin America because enormous distances, large geographical barriers, and regional rivalries separated the new Latin American countries. Only Brazil managed to contain national unity. Ecuador and Venezuela broke away from Great Colombia. The United Provinces of Central America were broken down into five separate countries, and Argentina was threatened with internal divisions. By 1840 Latin America contained 17 different independent nations. In 1826 Bolivar called a congress of the Latin American nations to meet at Panama to promote unification. Only Colombia, Peru, Central America, and Mexico attended. Although the Panama Congress failed, many Latin Americans cherish the ideal of unity.

Read Chapter 23 Section 6

7. In Latin America foreign investors owned many of the new railroads, ranches, plantations, and mines in Latin America. These investors received many grants from the Central governments like monopoly privileges, free land, and exemption from taxes. They did this because they hoped that these investors would help economize and industrialize their countries by establishing new business there. However the investors usually sent the profits from these businesses and the interest payments from loans back to their own countries. The Central governments in Latin America had more tax revenues. As a result of this foreign banks willingly lent them funds for public improvements. Central governments spent some of this money on strengthening their armies and navies. This was good because they could now control internal rebellions in their countries. If a revolution would overthrow the government, the new government would refuse to pay the old governments debts. Although Latin Americas spent some of their money to install electricity and streetcars in the capital cities, a lot of money was wasted on payments to powerful politicians. These unpaid loans frequently led to arguments by the foreign powers. European banking and business leaders would persuade their governments to pressure the Latin American governments for payment. A typical method of involved taking over the collection of the customs, the principal tax, and holding back enough money to pay the debts.

9. The United States wanted to completely dominate the Western Hemisphere, as opposed to Great Britain. America had not yet adopted the Monroe Doctrine farther than Central America when the offender was Great Britain. An example of this is like when British occupied the Falkland Islands (Malvinas), near the tip of South America in 1837. Although Argentina protested, America did not help the Argentineans. However in 1895 the U.S. intervened with a dispute between Great Britain and Venezuela. In the early 1800’s Britain acquired British Guiana on the northern coast of South America. Many times Great Britain tried to extend these borders even though Venezuela contested. Venezuela asked the U.S. for its help and demanded that a party agreed upon by all sides submit the border dispute to arbitration, negotiation for a settlement of the dispute. When Great Britain refused to arbitrate, President Grover Cleveland insisted that they do so. Finally, Great Britain agreed to the dispute, while being preoccupied with the South African War. The U.S. gained what it wanted, to be able to champion the cause of a weak Latin American nation against powerful European interests. The U.S. gained something else from this. They sought the gold region in Venezuela, and now earning Venezuela’s trust, the gold was now more accessible to them. The only problem was that the U.S. now had so many new possessions that they had to defend them. This was hard during the Spanish American War. Before the war the American battleship Oregon had been stationed on the Pacific Coast of the U.S. Once the war was certain to come, the Oregon was ordered to go around the entire South American continent, in order to strengthen American forces in the Caribbean. The U.S. figured that they must either create two navies to guard America or find a faster way to go from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Many attempts have been made to create a canal in Panama, which was proven unsuccessful like with the French. America began negotiating permission to build a canal. It asked Colombia to lease a strip of land in Panama, to create a canal. After a treaty was negotiated, the Colombian senate adjourned without ratification, a move that angered people in the U.S. and in Panama. The people of Panama wanted the canal because they thought it would be beneficial to them. When the negotiations broke down, Panamanian businessman and some American residents of Panama began to revolt for an independent Panama. The Americans protected the Panamanians from being suppressed by the Colombians, and therefore the revolt continued. In 1903 the United States recognized Panama as an independent country. The new government of Panama and the government of the U.S. immediately came to a negotiation for a lease of Panama land. The canal opened in 1914. The canal was hard to build. It required heavy machinery, and medical science. A Cuban doctor called Carlos Juan Finely, found that mosquitoes carried the “yellow disease”, a disease that killed many canal workers. The scientists than killed these mosquitoes to eliminate the problem of building a canal. The new route diminished the route from New York to San Francisco by 5000 miles, and from New York to Hawaii by 4400 miles. Also easier routes between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This decrease also lowered the cost of a ship, and the taxes. The areas of South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, which were formally “dead” of business, became flowing with business. The U.S. influenced the Caribbean continuously. It created military governments in Nicaragua from 1912 to 193, in Haiti from 1915 to 1934, and in the Dominican Republic from 1916 to 1924. Cuba was again subjected to an occupation government from 1906 to 1909, and the American marines were stationed there from 1917 to 1922. During the 1900’s world tensions increased, and the economies of the Caribbean’s almost collapsed. The U.S. feared that the governments would fall into a state of anarchy, or refuse to pay the debts owed to foreign nations. Europeans might have used this excuse to get involved with the Caribbean’s once again. In 1917 the U.S. purchased from Denmark three of the Virgin Islands east of Puerto Rico. This assured even more US’s control over the Caribbean’s. At the same time Puerto Rican’s became U.S. citizens, and had some of the same rights of self-government as America had. This ensured Puerto Rico’s loyalty to America even in rough situations. A Mexican rebellion in 1911 put Fransisco Madero in power of Mexico. He was assassinated in 1913 and Victoriano Huerta became leader. This caused a civil war between him and Venustiano Carranza and his people. This lasted for 10 years and cost over 1 million lives. The people wanted rights to the land, and Emiliano Zapata led on this idea. American investors had billions of dollars invested in Mexico and were scared. President Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize the government led by Huerta, and tried to overthrow it. He did not like the fact that this government did things without the consent of the people. He refused to send troops to Mexico to watch over American lives, and instead used “Watchful waiting”. However in 1914 after the arrest of some American soldiers, America sent marines to go occupy Veracruz. He also sent arms to Carranza and persuaded England to withdraw its support of the Huerta regime. Two years later U.S. troops were sent to Mexico to capture Pancho Villa, a revolutionist who raided New Mexico killing American troops. Tensions increased, and a sign of war was near. However this ended when America withdrew its troops from Mexico in order to send them into World War I.