Lauren Bruder- 2-406L
Aim: How did Louis XIV (AKA “The Sun King”)
Why did kings rise to power?
Absolute Monarchy- rules by divine right and decides what is best for the state
Ruler has unlimited power; individuals are like objects owing loyalty and obedience. Ruler encourages industry and trade to strengthen the economy. Ruler dominates cultural life either as patron of the arts or by censorship.
- Ruler holds unlimited poweràpolitical
- Ruler dominated upper classes, which in turn dominate lower classes. Ceremonies symbolize ruler’s poweràsocial
- Ruler encouraged industry and trade to strengthen the economyàeconomic
- Ruler dominated cultural life either by a patron of the arts or by censorshipàcultural.
- Appointed royal officials/ “intendants”(usually from middle class) to gain their loyalty- collect taxes, recruit soldiers, etc.
- Absolute power
- Didn’t call the Estate’s General (parliament) into session
- Finance minister- Jean Baptiste Colbert who had mercantilist policies
- High tariffs on imports
- Palace: ceremonies and rituals
nobles to live at
- He let them compete for his favor so they would fight each other, not him. Ceremonies and rituals(people following him and doing shallow chores for him- watch him get dressed, etc.)
- paid a high tax
government debt had tripled from 1774-1779
(half of it coming from
2. Banks were refusing to lend the government money even at 40% interest
3. By the spring of 1789, the price of bread had almost doubled from 1789 due to the bad drought of 1788 and the cold winter which stopped grain from being shipped. Bread was the main part of the diet of the French and the worker was used to paying about half of his earnings for bread; now almost every cent he earned went to his bread
4. Louis XIV called the Estates-General into session for the first time in over 150 years in order to raise money through taxes and hopefully to quiet the demands of the people who were starting to riot in the streets of Paris. Anticipating a discussion of the nation’s problems, each estate wrote its own cahier (letters of complaint to discuss conditions they wished changed) to the king.
Aim: How did Peter “The Great”, 1692-1725
Peter The Great 1692-1725
a. Abandon their isolation and take part in community life
Factors Contributing to
Peter The Great:
Aim: How did a clash between stuart kings and parliament result in a revolution?
Henry VII= established a new official church of England, the Angelican Church
Mary I(daughter of Henry VII)= had determination to make England Catholic. All who wouldn’t conform to the Catholic Church got burned at the stake (around 300 people)including Thomas Carpenter, archbishop Canterbury= “Bloody Mary”; End resultèfailed to destroy Protestantism
Elizabeth I(Mary’s half-sister)= Used parliamentary acts to make England Protestant (ex- those who didn’t attend the Angelican church had to pay a fine). The monarchy benefited from the break with the Catholic Church, due to the fact that it took over church lands and consolidated its powers.
- She managed the parliament wellàsummoned ten parliaments during her reign, and they met for a total of 140 weeks
- Obtained all the taxes needed without letting members of the parliament influence her policy
- Found it hard to prevent its members, especially Puritans, from questioning government policies
Mary Queen of Scots (Elizabeth’s closest relative and heir)= She was Catholic, thus horrifying English Protestants that she would be queen. She delayed plans for Phillip II of Spain to invade England and force a Catholic ruler on the English people.
- 1568àto escape problems in Scotland, Mary fled to Englandàimprisoned by ElizabethàMary plotted with Phillip II’s ambassador to kill Elizabeth and seize the English throne. Elizabeth signed Mary’s death warrant, and in 1587 Mary was beheadedàMary now deadàPhillip II had no reason to delay his plans to invade England.
Phillip II= Spanish king. In 1588, he sent fleets of 130 ships- “invincible armada” north towards the English ChannelàEngland got its ships to stop the armadaà “Protestant wind” began to blow, only about 50 ships returned to Spain.
James I= Kept powerful church of Scotland under control
- People gave him a letter from parliament, saying how it should be run, but he believed in divine right of kings, so refused.
- Couldn’t collect enough taxes to finance his policies= taxes passed by parliament were insufficient- sold titles of nobility, granted monopoly rights to private companies, and increased customs duties
- Was liked by Puritans- ordered English Bible to be published
Charles I= Took his job as head of the Anglican Church very seriously
- Favored formal and ritualistic Protestantism, which annoyed the Puritans (limited sermons to those that concerned the ten commandments and required government approval for the printing of religious booksàsome Puritans left to go to America for more religious freedom
- Couldn’t persuade parliament to give him moneyàforced people to give him money, and imprisoned those who didn’t- led to bad confrontation with parliament in 1629
- That led to members giving him a document called the “Petition of Right”= signed it, promising not to levy taxes without the consent of Parliament, imprison without charge, etc.àbut continued to levy taxesàmembers of the House of Commons protested, so he dissolved parliament.
Catherine (Catholic) with Henry VIIIè Mary Tudor “Bloody Mary”
Henry VIII with Anne (Protestant) èElizabeth
Elizabeth relatives with James I and Charles I- the Stuarts
These two kings were very unpopular-they were foreigners, claimed divine power, were friendly with Catholic Spain (most of England was protestant) and discriminated against Puritans. The middle class was mad about the taxes- the lawyers were mad that the kings would violate English law by imprisoning the people without trial. Parliament was mad that the kings would raise money without their consent, when they had Power of the Purse.
There is a lot of resentment by the middle class and Puritans
Charles does not call parliament into session for 11 years. Finally he is fighting the Scots (attempting to suppress their rebellion) and is desperate for money. He assembles parliament, who refuse to give him the money, and when he attempted to arrest its leaders, a civil war broke out.
Charles heavily taxed them, and wanted Puritans to conform to the Anglican Church; attempts to arrest leaders of the House of Commonsàcivil war erupts in Europe.
Parliament and the Puritans form one side, called the Roundheads. The other side, composed of the royal forces, was called the Cavaliers (from the word Cavalry)
The Roundheads, led by Oliver Cromwell, defeat the Cavaliers and put Charles I on trial for treason, tyranny, and murder. Charles was then found guilty and beheaded. This sets a major precedent for the rest of Europe, because it’s a major blow to the concept of divine right.
Cromwell rules England as a military dictator. This confuses the English people- did they get rid of one dictator just to be led by another? People were also unhappy because he favored a Puritan way of life, which was extremely strict.
When Cromwell died, the English people restored the monarchy through Charles II (who had been exiled after his father’s death). Learning from his fathers death, Charles II promised to observe the magna carta and the Petition of Right.
Why did this fail to gain widespread support?
Who were the Tories?
They were a group in Parliament:
The second of the two groups= Presbyterian guerillas
A group of people who were leaders in Parliament; made policies
First Prime Minister, also carried the “first lord of the Treasury”.
A leader sits on a throne, limited and constitutional- constitution limited the monarch’s power, and the monarch had to consult parliament.
Aim: how did Parliament gain power over the monarchs in England?
Theme: Power/Turning Point
Charles II- approves Habeas Corpus; also pledges to observe the magna carta and the petition of right; pledges to respect the authority of parliament
He knew what happened to his father, that got beheaded by the people
Charles was James’s brotheràJames was then king
- Born Protestantàconverted to Catholicism
- His wife dies and then he went and married a Catholic girl
- Then has a son who’s catholic
- People now worried about return to Catholicism
- Believed in divine right
James II- divine right, pro-Catholic (2 wives- one protestant, that dies, and one catholic- he converts to Catholicism).
Parliament secretly offers the English crown to William and Mary (daughter of James II) who are both protestant. James II flees England without a fight- called the Glorious Revolution, in 1688. This was a major turning point because their powers are not given to them by G-d, but by parliament (another major turning point was when Charles was beheaded). Now parliament have control of the monarchy and forces William and Mary to sign the Bill of Rights.
When George I rules, he didn’t know English or English traditions, so he needed advisors- called “Cabinet”, the head being the Prime Minister, who pretty much runs the country today.
HOW HE/SHE DEALT WITH RELIGIOUS ISSUES
Established a new official church in England, the Anglican Church.
Pro-Catholic, burned those who opposed Catholic laws. Tried to eliminate all Protestants.
Fully Protestant, imposed a fine on those who didn’t attend Anglican church. Persecuted Catholics and Puritans, establishing an enemy within the Puritans.
Mary Queen of Scots
Was Catholic, and even though the English Protestants didn’t like it, it prevented Philip II from invading England.
Catholic, leader of the Counter-Reformation
Left Puritans alone, ordered new translation of Bible into English.
Took Protestantism seriously, increased restrictions on the Puritans
HOW HE/SHE DEALT WITH CONFLICT WITH PARLIAMENT
Elizabeth ignored Parliament’s urges for her to marry, and when members of Parliament questioned the government too much, they began a revolution.
When he sold nobility titles, passed taxes and granted monopolies to private companies, Parliament had objected. They also objected when he attempted to make peace with Spain.
Signed the Petition of Right which ordered him not to levy taxes, declare martial law, quarter soldiers in private homes at peacetime, and not to imprison people for no reason.
4. The financial issues between the Stuart kings and Parliament served as the breaking point because despite all the pleas and attempts and petitions of Parliament, the kings still had to obtain money and did anything they could to receive it.
Aim: How did Enlightenment Thinkers answer the basic question of the 18th century? (how does one make mankind happy, rational, and free?)
Theme: Turning Point
-“Whenever Law ends, Tyranny begins”- Locke- With no laws, there is anarchy
- “Liberty is obedience to the law which one has laid down for oneself”- Rousseau – it is considered freedom because YOU make the law
All these questions about laws, etc. began with the Scientific Revolution, when they used logic, reason, and experimentation to solve problems of the physical- they discovered that everything has a cause and effect.
Descartes- “I think, therefore I am”
Beforehand, scientists relied on theology- religion and ancient texts. Their methods of solving problems, using reason, to solve physical problems were then applied to the study of humans, and human nature- this was the Enlightenment Period. They wanted to discover natural laws (laws between you and I), laws that govern human nature (society and human behavior).
Hobbes Vs. Locke- Hobbes lived during the English Civil War, and so he had a pessimistic opinion (since the king was beheaded), and Locke lived during the Glorious Revolution, so he had an optimistic view.
People are driven by selfishness and greed
In a “State of Nature”- without laws- chaos/anarchy/ “war”
To avoid this, people give up their freedom (social contract) to a government that provides order
Such a government must be strong to control the nation= absolute monarchy
Everybody is born with natural rights- life, liberty, and property
If the government doesn’t fulfill its purpose or if it transgresses the people’s rights, they can revolt, they can change the government
Felt that people only gave up some individual rights, and kept others.
Also believe that people first lived in a state of anarchy, then made a social contract.
* Turning Point- this idea is used by the U.S and later, France
If one person makes, enforces, and judges the laws, there is no freedom and this is an abuse of power.
Says that the powers of government should be separated into judicial, executive, and legislative branches.
Why? To prevent any one group or person from gaining too much power. Each branch should check and balance each other.
Presidentßà Supreme court
Congressßà Supreme Court
Legislative- made the laws
Executive- administered the laws
Judicial- interpreted and applied the laws
Aim: How did the Enlightenment Spread?
Theme: Cultural Diffusion
“An opinion launched in Paris (France was the center of the Enlightenment) was like a battering ram launched by 30 million people.”
Ex: Ben Franklin visited Europe- brought enlightenment ideas back to America
Denis Diderot- 28 volumes- 20,000 copies (1751-1789)- the editor
Purpose: to begin a revolution in the minds of men- wanted to change the wat people think or do things
Explained new ideas: Government, philosophy, religion, science, technology,- includes articles by leading professors (Voltaire, etc.) Denounced slavery, praised freedom of speech, urged education for all, attacks divine right theory and traditional religion- led to the democratization in France.
Arranged alphabetically- Roi (king) and Dieu (god) comes in alphabetical order, they are not the first things in the books- are not placed first! There was free access to knowledge and bypassed traditional authority.
Thomas Paine- “Common Sense”-this pamphlet represents Enlightenment thinking- says that it goes against reason that King George, who is so far away from the colonies, should rule them. This sparked the American Revolution.
We see a lot of Enlightenment ideas in the Declaration of Independence as well- we see concepts of all men are created equal, popular sovereignty, unalienable rights, right to rebel, etc.
Mercantilism- helped mother country, but greatly harmed colonies
Enlightened Deposits- people who tried to use Enlightenment thinking to help reform the country (they were absolute monarchs) King Frederick of Prussia- he says that he wants to fight ignorance and prejudice, to cultivate his peoples manners and morals, and to make them as happy as himself. He had Voltaire live in his court for a short while as an advisor. Although he spoke a lot about helping the state, he did more to increase his own power.
Catherine the Great- Gave a lot of “lip service”- said she wanted to free the serfs, etc. She conquered the Turks and finally got the warm water ports on the Black Sea that Peter had wanted- it was this, her military service, that she was known for.
Peasants are untouched by enlightenment- still lived in small, rural villages.
Could be sold with land
‘Owed labor with land
Some were forced to serve as sailors
Rented or owned land
Hired as day laborers
By late 1700’s, some sought reform and justice
Rousseau believed that education of women is key. A woman named Mary Wollstonecraft was the first real feminist.
Aim: Why did a Revolution Erupt in France in 1789?
The Revolution/Turning Point
“Road to Revolution”
Type of people= Clergy of the Roman Catholic Church
Percent of the Population= made up less than 1%
“Special Privileges”= (held since the middle ages)- only church courts could try priests and bishops
- Clergy didn’t have to pay taxes, but made a “free gift” of money to the French king
- Church owned about 1/10 of all French land, and therefore got a lot of money from taxes, rents, and fees.
- Higher clergy (archbishops and bishops) had a lot of money- therefore became lazy and neglected many spiritual duties
Poor Treatment and abuse= lower clergy (parish priest) did most of the work and got very little pay
Gave religious guidance and fed the poor, while providing education
Type of People= nobility
Percent of the population= less than 2% of the population
“Special Privileges”- (originated in the feudal time)
- The right to wear a sword
- Right to function as ‘Lord of the Manor’
- Exempt from most taxes
- Could collect rent from the poor peasants that worked their lands
- Many of the wealthiest bought their titles from past kings
- Some of the idealists among the nobility did understand the complaints of the first estate
- Nobles paid few taxes if any, and still collected feudal dues from the peasants
- Nobles were the only ones that could hold the highest positions in the army and the government
- Some cared about the welfare of France, but on the whole, the nobility were thoughtless and irresponsible
Type of People= The top: ‘Burgeoies’àcity-dwelling middle class- merchants, manufacturers, doctors, lawyers, etc. Below them- artisans and laborers; Bottom- the peasants- led miserable lives of poverty
% of Population= about 97%
Burgeoise- wealthy and had education
- Paid rent for the land on which they worked
- Heaviest taxes
- Tithe- 1/10 income to church
- Many could not afford to farm the land
- Many used farming equipment
July 14th, 1789 (also Mr. Rothbort’s birthday)- “Bastille Day”- Revolution Begins (French Independence Day)
Deficit- the French owed 126,000,000 francs more than they collected- this is called deficit spending
Frenchmen would fight for the Americans, and Louis spent a lot of money on the colonies there, because he believed in the phrase “My enemy’s enemy is my friend”.- the English and the Americans are enemies, as are the English and French.
The banks refused to grant Louis XVI loans, and so he planned to tax the 1st and 2nd estates, but they refused.
1789- Louis calls the Estate’s General (who had not met for 175 years)- asked each estate to write their grievances in a notebook (a “cahier)
1. Wanted a say in government policy mainly because the government interfered with their business
2. Wanted their sons to have important positions in the church, army and government= only nobles could
3. Merchants and manufacturers didn’t want to pay taxes when nobles and clergy didn’t
4.Wanted political power
5. Freedom to trade with foreign countries without interference
6. At first wanted mercantilism, but by the mid 1700’s , disliked mercantilist policies concerning government waging taxes, wages, and prices.
Page 429 Q’s #5 and #6
5).a. The terms liberty and equality were interpreted by the peasants as the right to eat and get reward for their labor.
b. By the Bourgoise- the freedom to trade without restrictions, and the right to get into the highest positions on society by way of merit alone
6). A. Louis XVI called a meeting of the estates general (1789 at Versailles), because he thought that by calling together all the representatives from all 3 estates (not just nobility) could get his approval for his idea for taxing the wealth
Famous speech made by a clergy- Abbe Sieyes
What is the third estate? EVERYTHING (majority of the population). What is it asking for? TO BE SOMETHING.
He was sympathetic to the peasants.
The voting was by estate, not by the individuals. In order to pass a law, two estates and the king must approve it. This was the third estate’s major complaint- 300 members of the first estate, 300 members of the 2nd estate, 600 members of the third estate. But each estate only gets one vote. The first and second estates would always vote as a bloc. This system angered the Third estate, and there was no resolution to this problem. They declared a national assemblyà National Assembly- they claimed that this represents the people. Louis XVI locks the assembly out of their meeting place. Instead, they meet outside, on a tennis court, and declared that they would not disband until a new constitution was established. After they take this oath, a rumor began that the king was marching an army in Paris against them, and this sparked the storming of the Bastille- the king’s jail, where prisoners who had been arrested by letters of cache were kept)-on July 14th, 1789. There were only 7 prisoners, but they heard arms were stored there.
- This sends a warning to the nobility and king not to resist reform
- Commoners express support for this new National Assembly
- The Bastille was a symbol of the King’s power
This was an attack on the kings power. Once the soldiers did not support the king, the tide turned. This was a turning point.
Summer of 1789- the “Great Fear”- violence and bread riots continued, especially peasants vs. nobles
October of 1789- women march in Versaille demanding bread
“We have the baker, the bakers wife, and son”- they captured Louis, Marie, and their son and took them back to Paris
People didn’t like Mary Antoinette- Louis’s wife married for political reasons- people didn’t like her because she was concerned with luxury and wealth
By the women getting involved, we see it was a popular revolt.
- Summer of riots- taxes should go to the poor
- King is having feasts while the rest of France is hungry
Aim: How did the National Assembly attempt to Reform France?
August 1789- “Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen”
Reform (change) the “Old Regime”- the old system in France
August 4th 1789- enacted reforms
1791- new constitution (The Tricdor Badge- red white and blue- became the emblem of the revolution)
Slogan of the Revolution: “Liberty, equality(before the law), fraternity(brotherhood-everybody worked together)- to the death!”
- All male citizens equal in the eyes of law
- Limited power of monarchy
- Established Legislative Assembly- elected by taxpaying male citizens
- Abolished special privileges and announced end to feudalism
- Taxes are levied according to ability to pay
- Abolished guilds, forbade labor unions
- Compensated nobles for lands seized by the peasants (the Great Fear)
- Declare freedom of religion *
- Took over and sold church lands (to pay off deficit) *
- Placed the French Catholic Church under control of the state*
- Provided that bishops and priests be elected and receive government* salaries
*= Caused the most problems for Assembly
Constitution of September 1791
Power in Government
~ Neither the nobility nor any other feudal titles exist
~ The legislative power is delegated to a National Assembly…freely elected by the people
~ The executive power is delegated to the king
~ The judicial power is delegated to judges who are elected by the people
~ The person of the King is sacred
~There is no authority superior to the law, the King rules under the rule of law
~ All citizens are admissible to offices…the only qualifications being their virtues and talents
~ All citizens shall be given the liberty to:
*Come and go as they please
Aim: Why did the French Revolution turn radical? (1791-1795)
Favors extreme changes in government policy(no monarch-republic)
Favors some changes in government policy
Open to minor changes in policy
Favors maintaining the status quo (same-limited monarchy)
Favors a return to post traditional policies (monarch)
Royalists: nobles/church return the king
“Reign of Terror”- Robespierre- “It is necessary to stifle the domestic (internal) and foreign (external) enemies of the Republic or perish with them…”- the basis of popular government in time of the revolution is both virtue and terror.
Stage 1: Activity of writers who denounce existing conditions and satirize common practices. The writers provide new goals and ideas (Enlightenment writers)
Stage 2: Public dissatisfaction culminates in riots, assassinations, and other acts of violence (Bread riots, women walk on Versailles, Bastille Day)
Stage 3: The ruling group is intimidated into making repeated concessions until power is transferred. (sometimes give up power willingly)
Stage 4: The reformers carry out their jobs
Stage 5: The new reforms divide the nation into rival groups (left, center, right)
Stage 6: Radicals seize power and attempt to impose their views on the nation
Stage 7: The public tires of the radicals, thus allowing moderates to regain power and restore order
Chapter 17 Sections 4-5, Pages 434-440:
National Convention: governmental assembly of delegates from France who ruled the country for three years. It ended the rule of the monarchy and began the rule of a republic. It was an equivalent of the United States’ Congress. Made up of Girondists and Jacobins.
- Held their first assembly in September 1792
- Nobody supported the king
Committee of Public Safety= In 1793- set up in order to direct the French army in defending the country and subduing foreign invaders. Established the Revolutionary Tribunal to put enemies of the French Revolution on trial.
Conscription= the draft- all men between the ages 18 and 45 were liable for military service; adopted by the Committee of Public Safety
Reign of Terror= the convention made a systematic program in order to suppress opposition to the republic; this lasted from September 1793 to July 1794.
Directory= 1795àThis was the name of the government created by the revised Constitution in 1795. This government was run by five executives called directors. It ruled France for four years. The Directory displeased many people, and the five directors were always arguing. The Directory was a weak form of government and experienced protests and riots. Eventually, it went bankrupt.
- Governed France for a few years, but neither the radicals or the conservatives were happy about it.
- The five directors were selfish and constantly fought with each other- couldn’t solve France’s problems
- Prices skyrocketed, and the peasants and the poor people of France suffered as a result of thatàthe directors made no effort to improve their desperate situation.
- Directors didn’t interfere with corrupt business leaders
The economic situation got badàcrowds rebelled and argued that the government wasn’t helpingàdirectors made no effort to improve their desperate situation.
- Soon became as unpopular as the old regimeàrepeated history- went bankrupt and made way for military dictatorship.
Aim: How did Napoleon Rule France? (1799- 1815)
The French Revolution (1789-1815)
Reign of Terror(1793)
Napoleon was a general at age 26, and suppressed the uprisings in Paris that tried to stop the establishment of the directory, and therefore made him very popular with the citizens of France. He was also an excellent organizer both politically and in military actions. He also had military genius.
Napoleon became the leader of France because conditions got bad and people thought that only Napoleon could be victorious abroad and bring it home. Then, in 1799, three directors resigned and two were arrestedàmade way for change, troops with bayonets entered the legislature and made most of the members leave (and those that remained left the government to Napoleon and his fellow plotters~ “I found the crown of France lying on the ground, and I picked it up with a sword.”
. People accepted Napoleon’s dictatorship because: 1- wanted stability and sick of the chaos; 2- afraid to protest because feared arrest; 3- Didn’t try to abolish changes from the revolution, but rather supported them. Also, he respected the Declaration of the Rights of Man, and didn’t restore serfdom and feudal privileges= reassured the peasants that they would keep their land and it wouldn’t be taken away from them.
- “He was like an expert chess player”- strategy- his opponent was the entire world, which he wanted to control
- “I am the constitution”- making power-absolutist
I. Early successes
II. Reforms (order, security, and efficiency)
Controls prices, encourages new industry and builds roads and canals
Helped Jews- they were all over the world and wanted their support
Aim: How did Napoleon’s Empire Fall?
Building an Empire (1804- 1814)
Spain has colonies in South America- while Spain is fighting France, what will the colonies do?- start to declare independence (Peru, Mexico, Chile, etc.)
He waited too long to make his decision to retreatàbitter cold and driving snow crossed the vast Russian plain once againàtemp. dropped and the Russians began to attack French forces without mercy.
Finally, Napoleon retreats. As England, Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia fight, they finally defeated Napoleon- Lipseg, Germany.
In Paris, Napoleon was forced to abdicate(give up his crown and throne). He was defeated in the Battle of Waterloo. Finally sent to the South Atlantic- to an island (St. Helena)in exile-and died there.
Napoleon didn’t realize that Britain also trades with the colonies in America and with India- when he cut off trade.
Defeated, abdicates, retires to Elba Island, escapes, comes back to France as a hero for 100 days- final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo.
1. What was known as the Continental System was a French Blockade of the British isles. This blockade served as a trade embargo upon Britain, which the French hoped would render the British without trade or profits. Unfortunately, the British responded with a similar international blockade on France, making trade with either country very difficult
2. Napoleon decided to invade Russia because it was apparent that it refused to obey the French Continental System, and such behavior was inappropriate for allies of France. This infuriated Napoleon and led him to invade Russia. However, as the Russian army was attacked, they slowly moved deeper into the recesses of Russia, and began to destroy things of value in the towns that the French were destined to pass through. Eventually, they had drawn the French army into the middle of the country with the Russian winter coming, which left them helpless and caused them to retreat.
3.Napoleon’s defeat in Russia was a disaster because it showed how unprepared the French army had been and it pointed out its weaknesses. Not only that, but the French had taken 4/5 casualties. This served as a major embarrassment for France because the Russians had taken advantage of their vast knowledge of their homeland, and put it to use in the swift destruction of the French army.
Quote- “My glory is not to have won forty battles, for Waterloo’s defeat will destroy the memory of as many victories. But what nothing will destroy, what will live eternally is my Civil Code.”- Napoleon’s Legacy:
- No privileges of birth
- All men are equal under the law
- Close to older French laws and customs to be acceptable to the French public and legal profession
- Moderate, well organized
- As a result, the code not only endured in France, but has been adopted with local modifications, in many other countries
- So weakened the Spanish government that for a period of several years, it lost effective control of its colonies in Latin America.
- But during the period of De Facto autonomy that the Latin American independence movements commenced.
- Sold a vast tract of land to the US because…
- Realized that the French possessions in North America might be difficult to protect from British conquest, and was short on cash
- Largest peaceful transfer of land in all of history
- Transformed the US into a nation of near-continental size
- Doubtful that the US would be a great power today without the Louisiana Purchase
- Napoleon wasn’t solely responsible for itàUS government clearly played a part, also- but French offer was such a bargain that any American government would have accepted itàbut the decision to sell the Louisiana territory came through the arbitrary judgement of a single individual, Napoleon Bonaparte.
Napoleon called, by some, “Son of the Revolution”
Others say he was a “Traitor of the Revolution”.
- Corrupt, inconsistent, and insensitive leadership
- Prosperous members of the third estate resent privileges of first and second estates
- Spread of enlightenment ideas
- Huge government debt
- Poor harvests and rising price of bread
- Failure of Louis XVI to accept financial reforms
- Formation of the National Assembly
- Storming of the Bastille
The French Revolution
- France adopts its first written constitution
- French feudalism ends
- Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen adopted
- Monarchy abolished
- Revolutionary France fights coalition of European powers
- Reign of Terror
- Napoleon gains power
- Napoleonic Code established
- French conquests spark nationalism
- French public schools get set up
- French people remain proud of Napoleon’s glory days
- French law reflects Napoleonic Code
- Metric system, set up after the revolution, in use worldwide
- After centuries of power, French political and military influence declines in Europe
Aim: How did the Congress of Vienna (1815) attempt to stabilize Europe following Napoleon?
Trying to “turn the clock back” to the Old Regime- complete monarchy
Metternich-leader of Congress of Vienna- reactionary
- Formed “Quadruple Alliance” to maintain peace and balance of power, and to prevent revolution
- Metternich was against liberalism, revolution, and freedom of speech.
- Established a secret police force to make sure that there was non
4. government, responsible for maintaining peace and the balance of power established at Vienna.
5. Prince Metternich wished to abolish completely any ideas of revolution and of liberalism. Liberalism was a movement which supported the rights of man and freedom of speech, religion, press, etc. He aimed to preserve absolutism, and achieved this through a secret police system in Austria. Any liberals that were caught were imprisoned, fined, or exiled
Aim: How did Production Change in the Late 1700s to early 1800s?
I. Agricultural Revolution
A. Enclosure Movement- combine lands (enclosing or fencing) to form larger-land holding that were more efficient for large-scale farming
B. New Invention
à Less need for many famers
Some move to cities
àAlternating crops of different kinds to preserve the soil
Crop production increases
Less need for farmers
Move to cities
II. Population Explosion
England 1700- 5 million
1800- 9 million
Europe 1700- 120 million
1800- 190 million
Why? (more food:)
- Ate healthy
- Improved hygiene
- Less famine
- Improved medical care
Vaccine smallpox (1796)
III. Domestic SystemàFactory System (ßMore demand)
With the population, came a greater demand for the goods:
First came John Kay’s Flying Shuttle for hand loom:
- Wider fabric, faster weaving
- More yarn needed…..
James Hargreave’s Spinning Jenny (home)/ Arkwright’s Water Frame (factory)
- Faster spinning-increased thread
- More thread than weavers use
Led to Edmund Cartwright’s Power Loom- more cotton needed….
- Removes seeds faster
- Growers raise more cotton
- US main exporter
- Slavery increases
- More cotton needed
HandàwateràSteam Engine (coal)
- Can be located anywhere- not stream
- Works 24/7- doesn’t depend on flow
Machine gun- 1861
Dynamite-Nobel-originally for mountains and mines
Population GrowthàGrowth of CitiesàUrbanizationàOvercrowding(tenements)àpollution(includes noise pollution)
Tenements- very little light, many families share one bathroom
Factory- all the factors of production in one place
Moved the “woof” across the loom more quickly.
Weavers could weave thread faster now.
Spin out thread quicker
Thread produced eight times faster now
Spin out thread by use of water power
Thread production automated by water
Combined the spinning jenny and water frame
Fine-quality thread produced amply
Weave cloth by water power
Weaving output multiplied by 200
Removed the seeds from cotton
One person could now do the job of that of 50
Used to propel vehicles such as cars & trains
Steam replaced water as main power source
Removed carbon to facilitate steel-making
Steel could now be made cheaply and efficiently
Mixed rubber with sulfur to make it more elastic
Became the basis of the modern rubber industry
Used steam to propel a moving engine
Established ways of transportation around G.B.
Steam-propelled boat for travelling across rivers
Steamboats soon appeared all over the world
Used system of dots and dashes to communicate across large distances
Telegraph soon became world standard of communication
Aim: How were the Lives of People affected by the Industrial Revolution?
A. Tenements- Little light, few windows, shared bathrooms-overcrowding
Built as a square- those in the middle had no windows- little fresh air or light
- No real sewage- those conditions led to diseases
B. Middle Class- more spacious housing. Could afford servants.
C. Child Labor is predominant in factories and mining
Why? 1. Lower wages
2.Smaller-this was a needed trait in coal mining, as well as in working machines
No real education for these children- they worked all day.
Middle class children were the ones who received education.
Ad from the time:
“Wanted: A few sober and industrious families of at least 5 children each, over the age of 8 years. Widows with large families would do well to attend this notice.”
Widows- could take advantage of them
Families- work well together, more manageable
Wages- determined by how much person can make doing other jobs; these children can’t do other jobs so their wages are low.
These wages are also determined by scarcity of workers- supply and demand.
12 hour work days:
Argument: These kids worked on farms before anyway, now they are making money for their family (the skilled workers lost their jobs)
Conditions are dangerous as well. No compensation, no insurance for workers, while there were frequent injuries.
Big difference between middle class(doctors, lawyers, merchants, factory owners) and the working class- they would exploit the working class. They weren’t sympathetic to the working class.
Middle Class women stayed in the house, hired servants, later on began no to marry and to work (many are teachers)
As a result of cheap goods being produced, working class standard of living is raised- have a little left over after expenses.
Globalization= a trend toward a single worldwide market without respect to national borders.
“Free Trade”- trade without tariffs(taxes) or restrictions
1). What is meant by oppressive child Labor?
When children are under the minimum age of work, have longer work hours than allowed by law, the employers pay the children very little or no wages at all, work in dangerous conditions.
2). Why do children go to work instead of school?
Parents are so desperate for money that they must send their children to work.
3). What is the Fair Labor Standard Act?
Roosevelt- 1938-shortens the normal work week to 40 hours, overtime and time and a half, minimum wage.
4). Why do employers want children to work?
Cost less, easily controlled, wont complain.
5). Do international laws exist to protect children?
Yes- but not strongly enforced. Agricultural industries still don’t have many restrictions.
6). What type of work do children perform?
Weavers, miners, factory workers, and soldiers.
7). Who was Iqbal Marish?
A boy in Pakistan-sold to pay for wedding of his sister- made rugs for a few pennies a week. Murdered, believed to be by factory owners enraged by his speaking out.
Aim: How Did Modern Capitalism Emerge from the Industrial Revolution?
(Great Britain originally had strict laws on transferring machines, people, and information- wanted a monopoly on their inventions. This policy didn’t work, however.)
Commercial Capitalism- mainly deals with trade-post-Crusades
- Spices, nutmeg, coffee, pepper
- Joint Stock Companies- British East India Co.
- Reintroduction of money
Industrial Capitalism- producing and manufacturing goods
- Mechanization- use of machines- first used in the textile industry
Capitalism- 5 Elements (Pure Capitalism)
Individuals are free to enter any business they wish.
1. “Wealth of Nations”- Adam Smith- Philosopher- 1776
à”Natural Laws” of economics was that individuals should be left free to pursue their own economic self-interest
àThe state should in no way interrupt the “free play” of natural economic forces, by imposing government regulations on the economy,ßLaissez Faire- “let do”
àCapitalism= “Free Market” (from regulations) economy
Roads and canals
2.Thomas Malthus- “Essay on Principles of Population”- late 1700s
- Said that food production cant keep up with the population growth(ßwrong! We see that today)
- Didn’t realize the technology that would improve farming
- Agreed with Adam Smith that the government should butt out
- His solution: people should stop having babies-its up to the people
Naturally the population would decrease-war and famine- also up to the people
3. David Ricardo- agreed with Malthus
- Theory-“Iron Law of Wages”
When wages are high, families have more children. More children lead to more labor(workers). More labor leads to lower wages and more unemployment.
- Solution: stop having babies-up to individual
4.Jeremy Benthon (1800)
- Utilitarianism= the idea that the goal of society should be the “greatest happiness for the greatest number of people”
- Government should therefore make laws that make people happy
- Institutions, laws and actions should be judged by its utility- usefulness-individual freedom but government needs to intervene under certain circumstances.
5. John Stuart Mill
- Unrestricted competition- favors strong over the weak- he says that this is not fair. Says that government needs to step in and help the working class.
- Advocated two things-giving people education, and giving the working class and women the right to vote. They have to know what’s good for them, and need to vote to win reforms and change the system.
Socialism- (opposite of capitalism)- public should control and own the factors of production- are operated for the welfare of all people- government runs it, actively plans the economy rather than depending on the “free market capitalism”
Theme: Economic System
Two Books: The Communist Manifesto (1847) and Das Kapital (1867)
I. Economic Interpretation of History- all of history is about the class struggles. In industrial society the two that are struggling are the factory owner vs. the workers, called by Marx the Bourgeoisie (the factory owner etc.- the “haves”) vs. the Proletariats (the factory workers- the “have-nots”)
II. Exploitation of the Workers
The rich live off the labor of the factory workers. Here the only difference between them is the exploitation- who’s working and who’s hanging out.
In America there is nothing wrong with this- the owner has taken risks by investing his money in it-if the business goes down, he loses everything- workers can find another job, however. America says- “You take the risk, you get the profit”.
III. Communist Revolution needed to end this exploitation. The Proletariat revolt against the owner. He called it a “worldwide” revolution of workers.
IV. Dictatorship of the Proletariat- workers control the means of production, and produce what society needs.
à “From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.”
- Everyone, all citizens would be equal and share in the profits- no private property
- Class would be eliminatedà “Classless Society”
- No need for government- “withers away”
This never happened- every communist country has always had a government that “protected the revolution and the workers.”
Aim: How did the Lives of the Working Class Improve?
I. Protest Movement
A. Lundites- smashed machines- thought that machines took away their jobs- in reality, it created more jobs
B. Chartists- “People Charter” petition-wanted to pay members of Parliament. If they had no salary, only rich people would be members, thus allowing only their wants to be voiced.
Voting rights/working conditions
Very little changes- women still couldn’t vote
“Rotten Boroughs”- very few people-still sent lots of people to parliament
b). Capital- factory owners and management:
c). Collective bargaining
Management and union representatives meet to negotiate
IV. Abolition- 1830
- Slavery was banned to the British Empire
- William Wilberforce- famous abolitionist
- Women also got involved in unions and abolition movements- decided to create movement for their own rights
- Right to vote was denied because men felt that they should stay at home, and that they got too emotional, and because politics is a very dirty business.
- Stanton, Susan B, Anthony
- Utah and Wyoming- 1st States
- US- 1920- 19th amendment (some women had been arrested, went on hunger strike). Needed strike ratification, and got it.
- Britain- Emmeline Pankhurst – WSPU
1918- over age 30 could vote
1928- over age 21 could vote
1). Where did people get their sense of identity throughout much of history?
Common heritage, language, religion, etc. These are the bonds, the glue, that bring a people together.
- Nationality- a belief, in a common ethnic ancestry- a belief that may or may not be true
- Language- different dialects of one language, one dialect chosen as the “national language”
- Culture- a shared way of life (food, dress, behavior, ideals)
- History- a common past, common experiences
- Religion- a religion shared by all or most of the people.
*(Originally, America did have all these things in common- now, it’s a “melting point”)
- Territory- a certain territory that belongs to the ethnic groups, its “land”
Leads toàNation- State- defends the nation’s territory and its way of life
Represents the nation to the rest of the world
Embodies the people and its ideals.
How can they be united?
“Germany does not look to Prussia’s liberalism, but to her power…The great questions of the day are not to be decided by speeches but by blood(war) and iron(industry)”
As a result, there was enormous industrial expansion, surpassing France and almost Great Britain! Great Britain and Germany now become major rivals, and the French will want revenge on Germany(this all leads up to World War One).
Imperialism= domination(control) by one country of the political, economic or cultural life of another country or region
àleads to cultural diffusion
- Local government officials were used
- Limited self-rule
- Goal: to develop future leaders
- Government institutions are based on European styles but may have local rule, but from afar- did not have enough people for direct rule; local government can relate to people.
- Foreign officials brought in to rule
- No self-rule
- Goal: impose European culture-assimilation (ex: Moroccans speak French)
- Government institutions are based only on European styles
- Coastal/ports (inside was controlled by natives)
- Very little influence on other people’s lives
- Conquered more land
- Coastal and interior(sent Africans and Muslims)
- Major impact on political, economic, cultural lives of natives.
Connection between Industrial Revolution and (New) Imperialism:
- Bases needed for merchant and naval vessels
- National security
- Prestige of global empire
- Strong, centrally-governed nation-states
- Need for natural resources
- Desire to expand markets
- Desire to invest profits
- Outlet needed for growing population
- Economies strengthened by Industrial Revolution
- Advances in weaponry- maxim gun-like a machine gun cannon. 650 rounds/minute
- Advances in medicine- Quinine- medicine fro bark of tree-cures malaria. They can now go into Africa to explore without fear of dying from disease
- Advances in travel- better steamships and railroads helping them to explore
- Belief in Western superiority- Racism- felt responsibility to spread Christianity and “civilize” these natives
- Paternalism- treat them as if they are children- need to raise them- “Half-devil, half-child”.
- Darwin- “Survival of the fittest”àEuropeans adopt this theory- they have factories, technology, etc.- they should naturally be able to conquer the Africans and Asians.
- Increased European self-confidence
White Man’s Burden: by Rudyard Kipling- duty as a civilized country to civilize other people- this is racist L
“Take up the White Man’s Burden-
Send forth the best ye breed-
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives’ need;
To wait in heavy harness
On fluttered folk and wild-
Your new-caught sullen peoples,
Half devil and half child.”
Aim: How did European Imperialism impact Africa?
I. Pre-Colonialism (pre-Imperialism)- 1600s, 1700s
A. Europeans occupied only the coastline- slave trade (not inland because of Sahara Desert, and in center- Congo- hot, malaria- rainforest; Kalahari- desert
B. Mostly interested in slavery
C. Africa- “Unknown”/Dark; Continent- hard to explore-
- Sahara/Kalahari Deserts
- Rainforest- equator zone
- Rivers are not navigable- rapids, waterfalls
II. “Scramble for Africa” 1850-1914
àno sense of order at all
Liberia- Given to freed slaves by president Monroe
Ethiopia- fought back and defeated Italians
-European countries met to set rules for dividing Africa (Africans not included).
European: Nationalism, Economic Competition, European racism, missionary impulse
Internal: Variety of cultures and languages, low level of technology, ethnic strife.
A. Africans lost right to rule themselves
B. Africans forced to adopt European customs, languages, and way of lifeàlost heritage(cultures)
C. African farmers lost their lands to Europeans(ßforced to grow cash-crops-cotton tobacco, etcàless farmlandàfamine)
D. Africans were forced to work for Europeans at low wages
E. Africans had to pay taxes but could not vote
F. Europeans made artificial boundaries(borders) without regard to tribal homelands.
àSplit tribe in different colonies
àRival tribes forced to live together
Ethnic tensionsàTribalism=loyal to your tribe (ethnic group) rather than the nation- RWANDA (Hutu and Tutsis )
Aim: How did British Rule impact India?
“The sun never sets on the British Empire”
“(India) The brightest jewel in the British crown”- the most profitable of their colonies
Lipton iced tea, cotton, indigo dye, jute (plant used to make twain)
British East India Com.- controls 3/5 of India:
Sepoy Mutiny/ Rebellion 1857
.British government sends troops, put down the rebellion
1858-British government takes full control of India
Primary goal=make $- Incorporate India into the British economy
Large market and source of raw materials
“Modernize” IndiaàWestern technology (R&R and telegraph) and culture
British “flood” the Indian market with cheap manufactured goods
- Destroys Indians domestic system-hand weaving industry
- Farmers pushed to grow cash crops- reduces Indians self-sufficiency
- Cleared forests- “deforestation”
Revised legal system to promote justice
R&R/telegraph (more for business)
Educated Indians –work in civil serviceà exposure to European ideas helped fuel nationalist movements
Looked down on Indian culture; dismissed their achievements, cash-crops. Indians lost self-sufficiency-reduced food production.
Cheap manufactured goods ruin India’s domestic system
a. The British controlled India by way of taking advantage of all the populace. They exploited quarrels between the little states that they had formed, as well as fights between the two religions present in India (Hindu and Muslim).
b. British rule brought Western culture and civilization to India. It brought the English language, Western customs, sciences, and arts. However, the British rule ended up causing a great many disputes between the people, and eventually, a rebellion, in which many Indians died.
c. The British took advantage of the people and used the regions’ fierce disputes for themselves, in order to win control of those regions. They also took advantage of the religions formed in India, especially by using cow and pig fat on cartridges for guns during the Sepoy Rebellion.
d. The imposition of Western culture led to conflict because the natives disliked the British attempts to take control of their lives and force them to follow their culture. Also, the British forced the Sepoys to fight wars for the British in Afghanistan, and they were dissatisfied with this.
e. Approaches to nationalism in India include imposition of British culture, use of the colony to better the advantage of Britain, and on the Indians’ side, the unification of the Sepoys to rebel against the British
- Ming Dynasty
- Very little interest in trade with foreign countries
- Foreigners= barbarians- Chinese looked down on them- required to kowtow- bow down to the emperor.
- “Middle Kingdom”- ethnocentrism
II. European Increased Interest in China
A. Dynasty in decline
B. Industrial Revolution created need for a market
C. Trade in tea, silk, porcelain…
China- trade surplus
àEuropeans then trade opium
- Worker productivity declines-everybody’s high on opium
- When the emperor’s daughter O.D-ed on opium, the Chinese had enough. They seized about 9 million dollars worth of opium from the British and burned it.
èResult: Opium War- 1839
Chinese are defeated- result is Treaty of Nanjing:
- China had to pay war damages (indemnity)
- 4 ports open to British trade
- British given Hong Kong Island
- British given “most favored nation” with regard to trade
- China granted extraterritoriality rights to foreigners
Aim: Africa, China, India, Japan è How was Japan able to resist Imperialism and becomes Imperialist?
I. Geography- Japan
- Many small islands-scattered over 1500 miles
- Japan lacks resources-lead and oil
- 15%is arable (farmable)
- Earthquakes, volcanoes, and tornadoes
II. Japan- Pre-1800
Act of Seclusion- nobody can be sent abroad (trade, etc.-no contact with the outside)
- Cut off ties with the outside
- Against Christianity (believed in Shinto and Buddha- “The Way”)
IV. Commodore Perry (US) 1853
Visits Japan, wanting trade-give them that option or will have war
“Treaty of Kanogawa”- 1854
Mission: Opens trade and harbors to refueling ships
Terms: Opens two ports so US ships can take on supplies
US allowed to establish an embassy in Japan
1860: Japan granted foreigners permission to trade at treaty ports
1867: Tokugawa shogun forced to step down
Japanese angered at shogun for giving in to foreigners demands and fear that he was losing control over the country
Emperor Mutsuhito A.K.A “Meiji”- turns westernized(in the beginning he wore kimonos, and after wore western garb)
V. Other countries also win concessions from China
- Start to fight vs. China. Once English start coming in, other countries do, too! Carved China into “Spheres of Influence”
= Country had exclusive trading rights- only in that area can that country do business
(British took port near India and the Yanghasee River that had large population- could trade)
- Russia and Japan in a conflict with eachother
- America late in getting to China but wanted some of the actionà “Open Door Policy”- no exclusive trading rights, China can trade with anyone (no sphere of influence).
VI. Chinese government response
àEmpress Ci Xi
Confucian valuesàoppose foreigners
Society of Harmonious Fists= Boxer 1800
US foreigners (Christians) brought in foreign people to teach, and sent Japanese abroad to learn about Western Culture
àTo be self-sufficient of foreign aid
1839- First foreign loan negotiated with the British
1855- First steamship
Because they had more technology
- Resources (iron, coal, iron…)
- Win respect from other countries
- Need food for growing population
Aim: How did Latin Americans Achieve Independence?
Why in 1800s did these countries declare Independence?
Bolivar (quote)à feels that colonial rule makes people’s life limited- restricted to farming.
- No better off than a serf
- Spain is greedy- no matter how much they do, not enough
Europeans didn’t want other people to grow certain crops because they wanted them to buy it from the Europeans.
- Had restriction/exploitation
- Called for rebellion
Creoles replaced Peninsulars as power
Lack of education and lack of history of democracy
After independence, military takes over. Roman Catholic Church has a lot of the power, and still inequality in Latin America.
Economic Dependence/Imperialism- colonized by Europeans for a long time and the Industrial Revolution- wanted resourcesàmade the L. Americans buy manufactured goods.
a. No industry
b. Wealthy ranchers (haciendas) became wealthier-more inequality.
Industrial Revolution and long periods of European Colonization:
South America becomes exporter of raw materials and importer on manufactured goods.
àLocal economies fail to develop
àWealthy haciendas-richer with more power
Latin America borrows money from foreignersàdefault in loansàforeigners take control of the resources.
US issues “Monroe Doctrine”- Monroe warned the Europeans (Spanish) not to interfere with independent Latin American countries (western hemisphere) and no further colonization (Columbia, Brazil, etc.). Don’t mess with our wars and “backdoors”. Europeans sent in troops to get the money that the country owed.
The US didn’t like that because its an unstable environment.
Roosevelt Corollary (addition to the Monroe Doctrine)- used to justify the US
Forced to interfere with Latin American affairsà “Speak softly but carry a big stick- your problems should go to a neutral person- the US
Haciendas- A large, self-sufficient farming estate.
3. The Roman Catholic Church had great power and great influence in Latin America. Missionaries came with explorers and conquistadors to convert the Indians to Christianity. On their mission they became close with the Indians, and even tried to prevent the national governments to abuse the Indians. By the 1700’s the Jesuits became extremely rich and powerful, because of haciendas, town property, mines, and thousands of slaves. By the mid 1700’s, the Spanish and Portuguese kings conquered these rich Jesuits, and acquired all of their land and property.
ROLE IN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT
Led the first revolt in the Latin American colonies. He led the revolt, which gained Haiti, on the island of Hispanioli in the West Indies. It was under the French rule. He led a small group of black farm workers to their independence. The slaves grew sugarcane and coffee trees, under the control of French landowners. When the French revolution took place the free mulattoes wanted the same rights as French settlers. In 1794 the mulattoes and blacks united to gain their independence, which was acquired in 1804. In 1803 L’ouverture died in a French prison.
He led Creoles, mestizos, and Indians in their proclamation of independence for Mexico. He led an Indian army against the Spanish peninsulas, and Creoles. He started the first important independence in Mexico. In 1811, Hidalgo was excommunicated, after his armies won a few early victories.
He was called the “liberator”. He led Latin Americans in a bloody civil war. He started his revolt in Caracas in 1810, but did not succeed in destroying Spain’s power in the viceroyalty of New Granada until 1819. Then he raised another army in what is called today Venezuela, crossed the Andes, and defeated the Spanish at Boyaca. He became president with almost absolute power in a nation called Great Colombia. The nation included the countries that are today, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama. Bolivar won a major battle in 1824 over the forces led by Spanish viceroy at Junin in Peru. By December that year revolutionists received their independence after winning the battle in Ayacucho. In 1825 the northern territory of Peru became a separate republic called Bolivia, in honor of Bolivar.
Jose de San Martin
He gathered an army and made a difficult crossing across the Andes into a place called Chile. He joined forced with the Chileans, led by Bernardo O’Higgins, and overcame Spanish resistance in 1818. From Chile he went north to conquer the city of Lima in Peru. He declared his independence for Peru in 1821, when the Spanish viceroy fled. Royalist forces still remained in Peru. There continued to be inner conflicts in Peru, and he was called to lead another uprising. He refused and turned his power to Simon Bolivar.
5. The British hoped to benefit from the Latin American independence. They were eager to continue trading with Latin America, because they thought they were very rich, even though they weren’t. The British also viewed Latin America as a useful ally against Europe, since Europe was becoming more conservative. It was because of this reason, that the British supplied the rebels with small amounts of weapons, primarily in South America.
6. It was difficult to unite Latin America because enormous distances, large geographical barriers, and regional rivalries separated the new Latin American countries. Only Brazil managed to contain national unity. Ecuador and Venezuela broke away from Great Colombia. The United Provinces of Central America were broken down into five separate countries, and Argentina was threatened with internal divisions. By 1840 Latin America contained 17 different independent nations. In 1826 Bolivar called a congress of the Latin American nations to meet at Panama to promote unification. Only Colombia, Peru, Central America, and Mexico attended. Although the Panama Congress failed, many Latin Americans cherish the ideal of unity.
7. In Latin America foreign investors owned many of the new railroads, ranches, plantations, and mines in Latin America. These investors received many grants from the Central governments like monopoly privileges, free land, and exemption from taxes. They did this because they hoped that these investors would help economize and industrialize their countries by establishing new business there. However the investors usually sent the profits from these businesses and the interest payments from loans back to their own countries. The Central governments in Latin America had more tax revenues. As a result of this foreign banks willingly lent them funds for public improvements. Central governments spent some of this money on strengthening their armies and navies. This was good because they could now control internal rebellions in their countries. If a revolution would overthrow the government, the new government would refuse to pay the old governments debts. Although Latin Americas spent some of their money to install electricity and streetcars in the capital cities, a lot of money was wasted on payments to powerful politicians. These unpaid loans frequently led to arguments by the foreign powers. European banking and business leaders would persuade their governments to pressure the Latin American governments for payment. A typical method of involved taking over the collection of the customs, the principal tax, and holding back enough money to pay the debts.
9. The United States wanted to completely dominate the Western Hemisphere, as opposed to Great Britain. America had not yet adopted the Monroe Doctrine farther than Central America when the offender was Great Britain. An example of this is like when British occupied the Falkland Islands (Malvinas), near the tip of South America in 1837. Although Argentina protested, America did not help the Argentineans. However in 1895 the U.S. intervened with a dispute between Great Britain and Venezuela. In the early 1800’s Britain acquired British Guiana on the northern coast of South America. Many times Great Britain tried to extend these borders even though Venezuela contested. Venezuela asked the U.S. for its help and demanded that a party agreed upon by all sides submit the border dispute to arbitration, negotiation for a settlement of the dispute. When Great Britain refused to arbitrate, President Grover Cleveland insisted that they do so. Finally, Great Britain agreed to the dispute, while being preoccupied with the South African War. The U.S. gained what it wanted, to be able to champion the cause of a weak Latin American nation against powerful European interests. The U.S. gained something else from this. They sought the gold region in Venezuela, and now earning Venezuela’s trust, the gold was now more accessible to them. The only problem was that the U.S. now had so many new possessions that they had to defend them. This was hard during the Spanish American War. Before the war the American battleship Oregon had been stationed on the Pacific Coast of the U.S. Once the war was certain to come, the Oregon was ordered to go around the entire South American continent, in order to strengthen American forces in the Caribbean. The U.S. figured that they must either create two navies to guard America or find a faster way to go from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Many attempts have been made to create a canal in Panama, which was proven unsuccessful like with the French. America began negotiating permission to build a canal. It asked Colombia to lease a strip of land in Panama, to create a canal. After a treaty was negotiated, the Colombian senate adjourned without ratification, a move that angered people in the U.S. and in Panama. The people of Panama wanted the canal because they thought it would be beneficial to them. When the negotiations broke down, Panamanian businessman and some American residents of Panama began to revolt for an independent Panama. The Americans protected the Panamanians from being suppressed by the Colombians, and therefore the revolt continued. In 1903 the United States recognized Panama as an independent country. The new government of Panama and the government of the U.S. immediately came to a negotiation for a lease of Panama land. The canal opened in 1914. The canal was hard to build. It required heavy machinery, and medical science. A Cuban doctor called Carlos Juan Finely, found that mosquitoes carried the “yellow disease”, a disease that killed many canal workers. The scientists than killed these mosquitoes to eliminate the problem of building a canal. The new route diminished the route from New York to San Francisco by 5000 miles, and from New York to Hawaii by 4400 miles. Also easier routes between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This decrease also lowered the cost of a ship, and the taxes. The areas of South America, Central America, and the Caribbean, which were formally “dead” of business, became flowing with business. The U.S. influenced the Caribbean continuously. It created military governments in Nicaragua from 1912 to 193, in Haiti from 1915 to 1934, and in the Dominican Republic from 1916 to 1924. Cuba was again subjected to an occupation government from 1906 to 1909, and the American marines were stationed there from 1917 to 1922. During the 1900’s world tensions increased, and the economies of the Caribbean’s almost collapsed. The U.S. feared that the governments would fall into a state of anarchy, or refuse to pay the debts owed to foreign nations. Europeans might have used this excuse to get involved with the Caribbean’s once again. In 1917 the U.S. purchased from Denmark three of the Virgin Islands east of Puerto Rico. This assured even more US’s control over the Caribbean’s. At the same time Puerto Rican’s became U.S. citizens, and had some of the same rights of self-government as America had. This ensured Puerto Rico’s loyalty to America even in rough situations. A Mexican rebellion in 1911 put Fransisco Madero in power of Mexico. He was assassinated in 1913 and Victoriano Huerta became leader. This caused a civil war between him and Venustiano Carranza and his people. This lasted for 10 years and cost over 1 million lives. The people wanted rights to the land, and Emiliano Zapata led on this idea. American investors had billions of dollars invested in Mexico and were scared. President Woodrow Wilson refused to recognize the government led by Huerta, and tried to overthrow it. He did not like the fact that this government did things without the consent of the people. He refused to send troops to Mexico to watch over American lives, and instead used “Watchful waiting”. However in 1914 after the arrest of some American soldiers, America sent marines to go occupy Veracruz. He also sent arms to Carranza and persuaded England to withdraw its support of the Huerta regime. Two years later U.S. troops were sent to Mexico to capture Pancho Villa, a revolutionist who raided New Mexico killing American troops. Tensions increased, and a sign of war was near. However this ended when America withdrew its troops from Mexico in order to send them into World War I.